Hair is the long, slender filamentous strands that grow out of the body. In keeping with the understanding of the time, the Buddha usually made a distinction between head hair (kesa) and body hair (loma, M.I,57).
Hair has long had a social, religious, erotic and psychological significance. Sikhism teaches that men should not cut their hair, while the Bible condemns long hair on males as against nature (1 Corinthians 11,14).
The ancient Indian tradition considered hair to be one of the five types of human beauty, and glossy black head hair and the line of soft down between the pubis and navel (tanuromaraji) had a strong erotic appeal.
The coiffeur’s art was very sophisticated by the Buddha’s time and both men and women paid a great deal of attention to their hair. Women favored parting their hair in the middle (dvedhasira vibhatta), wearing plaits (veṇi, Ja.II,185) and applying sandal oil to it both to perfume it and to make it glisten (Ja.V,156).
For men, sikhābandha consisted of twisting long hair and a long cloth together and then tying it around the head into a turban (D.I,7).
Buns on the back, top or the side of the head were also popular. Bees’ wax and sometimes banyan tree sap was applied to slick the hair down (Vin.II,207) Men trimmed their beards, wore them long, grew goatees (goḷomikam kārāpenti), and shaped them into four points.
They would also pluck out grey hairs to disguise the fact that they were getting old (Vin.II,134).
When the braids were tied into a bun on the top of the head it was called jaṭaṇḍuva (S.I,117).
Some ascetics wore topknots while others shaved their heads or pulled their hair out (D.I,167). Brahmans probably shaved their heads except for a small part at the back which was left to keep growing, as they still do today.
Nuns were expected to shave their underarm and pubic hair which was a sign of respectability in women (Vin.IV,260). Monks were also asked to cut the hair in their noses if it got too long so as to avoid having a curious or unpleasant appearance (Vin.II,134) . See Shaving.