Nenang Pawo Rinpoche is a Tibetan Buddhist lama, considered to be one of the highest lamas of the Karma Kagyu sect. The Pawos form a lineage of reincarnate lamas, tulkus, of which the first was born in 1440. They were traditionally the heads of Nenang Monastery in Central Tibet.
The 10th Pawo Rinpoche, named Tsuglag Mawey Wangchuk, lived from 1912 to 1991. He was recognised by the 15th Karmapa, Khakyab Dorje. After completing the traditional education of a reincarnate lama followed by a period of meditative retreat, he became one of the teachers of the 16th Karmapa, Rangjung Rigpe Dorje. Pawo fled Tibet during the uprising against Chinese Communist rule in 1959, traveling to Bhutan and then on the Kalimpong in India. At the request of the Dalai Lama, Pawo served as an instructor at the Sanskrit University in Benares from 1962 until 1966. In 1975, he travelled in Western countries, establishing his Western seat in France where he lived permanently (1978–1986). In 1986 he established a new monastery, Nenang Phuntsok Chöling, near Boudnath in Nepal, where he resided for the remainder of his life.
In 1994, the 11th Nenang Pawo, while still an infant, was recognised by Ogyen Trinley Dorje, who is accepted as the current Karmapa by one faction of the Karma Kagyu and by the Chinese government. The 11th Pawo was enthroned at Nenang Monastery near Lhasa in 1995 and given the name Tsuglag Tenzin Künsang Chökyi Nyima or Tsuglag Mawey Drayang. Following Ogyen Trinley's escape to India in 2000, which was aided by a monk from Nenang, reports surfaced that, in reprisal, the child Pawo had been removed for a while from his monastery and that his religious education had been restricted.
The first Pawo, Chöwang Lhundrup, was born in 1440 in Yarlung in Central Tibet. It is said that he was given the title Pawo, which means "hero", as a result of the supernatural powers he displayed at a young age. He became a student of the 7th Karmapa, Chödrak Gyatso, whom he encountered in southern Tibet. Being first a Nyingma meditation master, Chöwang Lhundrup became one of the Karmapa's spiritual heirs, the Karmapa establishing him as the head of Sekhar Guthog, the place where lived Milarepa and Marpa.
The second Pawo, Tsuglag Trengwa, was the "moon-like" disciple of the 8th Karmapa, Mikyö Dorje, as well as a famous author of historical, philosophical and astrological texts. In 1673, during the reign of the fifth Dalai Lama, the seat of the lineage was moved from Sekhar Guthog to Nenang Monastery, which is located in Central Tibet near Tsurphu Monastery, the main monastery of the Karmapas.
List of Pawos