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Numerical Dhammas

From Tibetan Buddhist Encyclopedia
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 There is only one unique situation where Suffering (Dukkha) is eliminated. It is Nibbana without geographical location. It is there where the four fundamental elements find no footing.

Two Male Chief Disciples: Thera Sariputta (Right Wing) and Thera Moggallana (Left Wing)
Two Female Chief Disciples: Theri Khema (Right Wing) and Theri Uppalavanna (Left Wing)
Two seven-year-old Arahats were Samanera Sumana and Samanera Pandita (Sukha) (Ref: Dhammapada V. 382 & V.80)
Two kinds of Happiness (Sukha): Kayasukha and Cittasukha.
Two Foremost Teachers: The Mother and the Father
Two kinds of personality Belief (Sakkaya Ditthi): (1) takes delight in individuality (Sakkaya bhirata) and (2) who strives towards cessation of mind and matter phenomena (Nibbana bhirata).
Two kinds of Individual (Bhirata): eternity belief (sassata ditthi) and annihilation belief (uccheda ditthi).
Two persons which one can never pay back gratitude-debts in full: the Mother and the Father who raised one up.

Two principles guarding the world ( Lokapala dhamma):

    Shame to do the evil (hiri) and
    Fear to do the evil (ottapa)

Two kinds of Bhava:

    Kamma Bhava: Kammas caused by four Upadanas
    Upapatti Bhava: Rebirth Bhava

The Three Baskets: Tipitakas: Vinaya, Sutta and Abhidhamma

Three kinds of Bodhisatta; those destined to become a Buddha ():

    Fulfilling the practice of Perfection (parami) for four asankheyyas and one thousand aeons (pannadhikabodhisatta), (Intellectual Bodhisatta)
    Fufilling the practice of Perfection (parami) with conviction (saddha) for eight asankheyyas and one hundred thousand aeons (saddhadhikabodhisatta (Devotional Bodhisatta), and
    Fulfilling the practice of Perfection (parami) with Endevour predominating for sixteen asankheyyas and one hundred thousand aeons (viriyadhikabodhisatta) (Energetic Bodhisatta)

Three kinds of Sasana:

    (1) learning the Buddha's Teaching, Pariyatti Sasana;
    (2) practical application of the Buddha's Teaching, Patipatti Sasana; and
    (3) the realization of the Buddha's Teaching, i.e., attainment of jhana, magga, phala and Nibbana, Pativedha Sasana.

The Three Types of Essence:


Three characteristic marks or signs inherent in a sentient being:

    Impermanence ( anicca),
    Suffering or unsatisfactoriness (dukkha) and
    The uncontrollable and non-self nature (anatta)

Three kinds of attachment to existence (Raga):

    In the sensuous sphere;
    In the fine-material sphere and
    In the non-material sphere.

Three categories of bhikkhu:

    (a)Thera bhikkhu or elders are bhikkhus who have spent ten or more years in the Order;
    (b) Majjhima bhikkhu or those of middle standing who have been in the Order from five to nine years;
    (c) Nava bhikkhu or newly admitted ones who have been in the Order for less than five years.

Three kinds of craving (Tanha):

    Attachment for pleasures of the senses (kama tanha)
    Attachment for continued existence (bhava tanha)
    Attachment to non-belief in kamma for rebirth nor future existenxe (vibhava tanha)

The Three Kappas (Disasters)

    The disaster by famine
    The disaster by weapons
    The disaster by epidemic

The Three Lokas or Worlds:

    The Conditioned World (Sankhara Loka)
    The Animal World (Satta Loka)
    The Inanimate World (Okasa Loka)

The Three Lokuttara Dhamma:

    The Dhamma of Magga
    The Dhamma of Phala
    The Dhamma of Nibbana

The Three kinds of training (sikkha):

    Virtue or morality (sila);
    Concentration (samadhi);
    Wisdom or understanding (panna).


The Four apayas (Nether Worlds)

    The Realm of intense continuous suffering/ Hell (Niraya);
    The Realm of animals (Tiracchana)
    The Realm of ever hungry beings (Peta)
    The Realm of miserable beings (Asurakaya).

Four Analytical Insights (patisambhidas):

    Into meaning and consequences of things (atthapatisambhida),
    Int the nature of the doctrine (dhammapatisambhida),
    Into the language, grammar and the syntax of the language (niruttipatisambhida) and
    Into the nature of the above three knowledges (patibhanapatisambhida).

Four Asavas (Intoxicant, stain, canker, corruption)

1. Kamasava:attachment to sensual pleasures
2.Bhavasava: attachment to rupa-jhana and arupa-jhana as well as to the existence in rupa and arupa planes.
3.Ditthasava: 62 kinds of false views
4.Avijjasava: ignorance with regard to the four Noble Truths, Past and Future Lives, and the Law of Dependent Orignation.

Four Attributes of Nibbana

    expounded by the Fully Enlightened One sammasambuddha desitam;
    free of sorrow (asokam);
    free of corruptions or kilesa (virajam)
    peace (khemam).

Four Brahma Viharas ( Sublime abode/ State of living)
1. Metta (Loving kindness, goodwill)
2. Karuna (Compassion)
3. Mudita (Sympathetic joy)
4. Upekkha (Equanimity)

Four Constituents of the body:

    1. Kammaja rupa, corporeality caused by one's kamma.
    2. Cittaja rupa, corporeality caused by one's mind.
    3. Utuja rupa, corporeality caused by heat and cold.
    4. Aharaja rupa, corporeality caused by nutritive essence.

The Four Foundations of Mindfulness:

    Kayanupassana Satipatthana: Contemplating the Body
    Vedananupassana Satipatthana Contemplating the Feeling
    Cittanupassana Satipatthana Contemplating the Consciousness
    Dhammanupassana Satipatthana Contemplating the Dhamma

Four Great Elements

1. Pathavi (Element of extension/ hardness and softness)
2. Apo (Element of Cohesion / cohesiveness and fluidity)
3. Tejo (Element of heat/ hotness and coldness)
4. Vayo (Element of motion / wind, vibration etc.)

Four Kinds of Assembly or gathering of people:

    assemblies of bhikkhus,
    assemblies of bhikkhunis,
    assemblies of male lay disciples and
    assemblies of female lay disciples.

Four kinds of Death (Marana)

    death through the expiry of life span, ayukkhaya marana;
    death through the expiry of the kammic force, kammakkhaya marana;
    death through the simultaneous expiry of both life span and kammic force, ubhayakkhaya marana; and
    death through the intervention of a destructive force, although the life-span and the kammic force have not ended,upacchedaka marana.

Four kinds of Iddhipadda: The root or basis of attaining completion or perfection

    chandiddhipado,- chanda
    viryaddhipado, - viriya
    cittiddhipado, - citta
    vimamsiddhipado, - vimamsa or panna

Four Kinds of Kammas:

    Garu Kammas: weighty kammas
    Asanna Kammas: deeds, words or thoughts on the verge of death
    Acinna Kammas: deeds, words or thoughts which are repeated or regular.
    Katatta Kammas: all other kammas

Four kinds of sammappadhana

    1. uppannanam akusalanam dhammanam pahanaya vayamo,
    2. anuppannanam akusalanam dhammanam anuppadaya, vayamo,
    3. anuppannanam kusalanam dhammanam uppadaya vayamo, ,
    4. uppannanam kusalanam dhammanam bhiyyobhaya vayamo.,

    1. Effort to overcome or reject evil unwholesome acts that have arisen, or are in the course of arising;
    2. Effort to avoid (not only in this life but also in the lives that follow) the arising of unwholesome acts that have not yet arisen,
    3. Effort to arouse the arising of wholesome acts that have not yet arisen,
    4. Effort to increase and to perpetuate the wholesome acts that have arisen or are in the course of arising.

    (1)the effort to overcome (pahana-padhana), i.e. to overcome unwholesome states,

    (2) the effort to avoid (samvara-padhana), i.e. the effort to avoid unwholesome (akusala) states, such as evil thoughts, etc.

    (3) the effort to develop (bhavaná-padhana), i.e. to develop wholesome (kusala) states, such as the 7 elements of enlightenment

    (4) the effort to maintain (anurakkhana-padhana),i.e. to maintain the wholesome states.

Four Magga (the Path leading to the Nibbana)

    The Path of Stream-winner ( Sotapatti-magga)
    The Path of Once-returner(Sakadagami-magga)
    The Path of Non-returner (Anagami-magga)
    The Path of Arahat (Arahatta-magga)

Four Material Requisites of Bhikkhus

    Dwelling, and

Four Noble Truths

    Dukkha Ariya Sacca( Comprehension of Suffering)
    Dukkha Samudaya Sacca ( Cause of Suffering)
    Dukkha Nirodha Ariya Sacca (Cessation of Suffering)
    Dukkha Nirodha Gamini Patipada Ariya Sacca or Magga Ariya Sacca (Path leading to Cessation of Suffering)

The Four Sacred Places:

    The birthplace of the Buddha (Lumbini on the Indian borders of Nepal).
    The place where the Buddha attained enlightenment (Buddha Gaya, in India).
    The place where the Buddha established the wheel of truth (Saranath), and
    The place where the Buddha attained Parinibbana (Kusinara-modern Kasia in India)

Four things in the world which are incomprehensible: Acinteyyas:

    the domain of a Buddha, Buddha-visaya;
    the sphere of the trances, jhana-visaya;
    the consequences of volitional action, kammavipaka; and
    brooding over the world, loka-cinta.

Four Upadanas:four causes of Kammas

    Kamupadana: sensual pleasures
    Ditthupadana: false view (belief in annihilation)
    Silabbatupadana: false views regarding practices for liberating oneself from samsaric cycle.
    Attavadupadana: false view based on belief in atta (soul)

Four Vipatti (Deficiencies)(Impairment; destruction; misfortune)

    Living during the time of bad rulers (Kalavipatti)
    Being reborn in four miserable existences (Gativipatti)
    Having physical deformities and disfigurements (Upadhivipatti) and
    Being deficient in intelligence, knowledge, mindfulness, right effort and diligence (Payogavipatti)


Five Aggregates (Khandhas):

    The aggregates of corporeality (rupakkhandha),
    The aggregates of sensation (vedanakkhandha),
    The aggregates of perception (sannakkhandha),
    The aggregates of volitional activities (sankharakkhandha) and
    The aggregates of consciousness (vinnanakkhandha).

Five Collections of the Teachings of the Buddha (Pancanikaya):

    Collection of long Discourses, Digha nikaya;
    Collection of medium-length Discourses, Majjhimanikaya;
    Collection of groups of connected Discourses, Samyuttanikaya;
    Collection: of numerically graduated Discourses, Anguttaranikaya; and
    Collection of shorter, i.e. ,the remaining Discourses, Khuddakanikaya

Five dhammas consist of

    Five nivaranas
    Five khandhas
    Twelve Ayatanas
    Seven Bojjhangas, and
    Four Ariya Saccas

Five Earliest Disciples of the Buddha:

    Mahanama and

Five Feelings (vedana)

    bodily pleasant feeling: sukha
    bodily pain: dukkha
    gladness: somanassa
    sadness: domanassa
    indifference: upekkha

The five great misdeeds that definitely lead to niraya at death. (Pancanantariya Kamma)

    The murder of an Arahant,
    The wounding of a Buddha and
    The creation of a Schism (splitting) in the Bhikkhu Samgha


Five Indriyas :
(Factors or faculties of Enlightenment)

    Saddhindriya: Faith or confidence
    Viriyindriya: energey or effort
    Satindriya: mindfulness
    Samadhindriya: concentration
    Pannindriya: wisdom

Five kinds of delightful satisfaction piti:

    The thrill of joy and delightful satisfaction of low intensity which makes the flesh tingle or creep: khuddaka piti;
    Instantaneous joy like a flash of lightning (of delightful satisfaction): khanika piti;
    A surge of delightful satisfaction or flood of joy like surf breaking on the shore; okkantika piti;
    Delightful satisfaction which transports and enables one to float in the air like a wisp of cotton, ubbega piti; and
    Intense delightful satisfaction which suffuses the whole body for a long time, or like a flood overflowing small tanks and ponds: pharana piti.

Five Kinds of Losses (Byasana)

    Loss of relatives (Nati-byasana)
    Loss of wealth (Bhoga-byasana)
    Loss of health due to illness (Roga-byasana)
    Loss of right view (Ditthi-byasana)
    Loss of morality (Sila-byasana)

The Five Nivarana or Hindrances of the way to liberation

    Kamachanda: sensual desire or lust
    Byapada: ill will, hatred or anger
    Thina middha: sloth and torpor
    Uddhacca, Kukkucca: restless and worry, and
    Vicikiccha: sceptical doubt or wavering

Five Spiritual Faculties (bala):

    faith: saddha
    energy: viriya
    mindfulness: sati
    concentration: samadhi
    wisdom: panna

The Five Veras (Enemies )

    Bad Ruler
    Bad sons and daughters who are unworthy heirs

Five Spiritual Faculties:

    faith (saddha);
    energy (viriya);
    mindfulness (sati);
    concentration (samadhi);
    wisdom (panna).

Five Things hindering the mind from making right exertion

    doubts about the Buddha;
    doubts about the Dhamma;
    doubts about the Sangha;
    doubts about the three Sikkha (sila, samadhi and panna);
    ill-will towards his fellow monks and companions.


The Six Rays of the Buddha (chabbannaramsi)are:

    rays of dark blue colour, nila;
    rays of yellow colour, pita;
    rays of red colour, lohita;
    rays of white colour, odata;
    rays of dark red colour, manjittha; and
    glittering rays of a mixture of the above five colours, pabhassara.

The six super-normal or higher Powers -Abhinnas

    Supernormal Powers or magical powers for producing miracles(Iddhividha)
    The Divine Ear like that of the devas (Dibba-sota)
    Power to read the minds of others (ceto-pariya-nana)
    Knowledge of Former existences( Pubbe-nivasanussati)
    The Divine Eye (Dibba-cakkhu)
    Higher psychic power which can eradicate defilements (Asavakkhaya)

Six Planes or Abodes of Celestial Beings (Deva loka)


The six hindrances nivarana :

They prevent the arising of good thoughts and good deeds, jhanas and maggas.

    Kamacchanda; sensual desire,
    Byapada; ill will,
    Thina middha; sloth and torpor,
    Uddhacca kukkucca; restlessness and worry,
    Vicikiccha; doubt, and
    Avijjaaignorance of the Ariya Truths,

Six kinds of words :(The Buddha rejected No. 1 to No. 4; No. 5 and No. 6 were accepted)

    Words that are untrue, unpleasing, unbeneficial.
    Words that are untrue, pleasing, unbeneficial.
    Words that are true, unpleasing, unbeneficial
    Words that are true, pleasing, unbeneficial
    Words that are true, unpleasing, beneficial.
    Words that are true, pleasing, beneficial.

Six everlasting charity (Tharavapunna)

    Setting up gardens and orchards for public use
    Planting shady trees and fruit trees for public use
    Building roads and bridges for public use
    Providing drinking water at the wayside
    Constructing wells, tanks and ditches as means of public water supply
    Donation of monastic dwellings, etc.

Six qualities of the law (Dhamma)

    well-proclaimed by the Blessed One (svakkhato);
    visible here and now (sanditthiko);
    not delayed and timeless (akaliko);
    inviting inspectioin (ehipassiko);
    onward-leading (opaneyyiko);
    directly experienceable by the wise (paccatam veditabbo vinnuhi).

Seven Anusayas (Latent Defilements)

They are the seeds of potentiality of defilements

    Ditthanusaya, false view of mind and body.
    Vicikicchanusaya,sceptical doubts about the Buddha, Dhamrna and Samgha
    Kamaraganusaya, attachment to sensual pleasures.
    Patighanusaya, ill-will hatred and anger.
    Mananusaya, Conceit/ pride
    Bhavaraganusaya, attachment to rebirth as a brahma/ attachment to rupa and arupa jhanas and the existence in rupa and arupa planes/ craving for continued existence
    Avijjanusaya, not knowing the Four Ariya Truths, namely, (a) dukkha (rebirth, old age, disease, death, tribulation, grief, separation from dear ones, etc.), (b) samudaya (cause of dukkha), Cc) nirodha (end of dukkha), (d) rnagga (path to the end of dukkha).

Seven Universal Mental States ( (Sabbacittasadharana):)

    contact (phassa);
    feeling (vedanta);
    perception (sanna),
    volition (cetana);
    one-pointedness (ekaggata);
    psychic life or vitality (jivitindriya);
    attention (manasikara).

Seven factors of Enlightenment (bojjhanga)

    Sati Sambojjhan: Mindfulness
    Dhammavicaya Sambojjhan: Vipassana wisdom analysig anicca, Dukkha and Anatta
    Viriya Sambojjhan: Energy
    Piti Sambojjhan: Rapture due to progress of Insight
    Passaddhi Sambojjhan: Tranquility at stage of Udayabbaya Nana
    Samadhi Sambojjhan: Concentration
    Upekkha Sambojjhan: Equanimity

Seven Days of the Week with special reference to the Buddha

    Monday, Full Moon Day of Waso: Renunciation by the Bodhisatta, Prince Siddhattha, at the age of 29.
    Tuesday, Full Moon Day of Kason: Parinibbana of the Buddha at the age of 80 in 543 B.C.
    Wednesday, Full Moon Day of Kason: The Bodhisatta attained Enlightenment at the age of 35 in 588 B.C.
    Thursday, Full Moon Day of Waso: Conception of the Bodhisatta.
    Friday, Full Moon Day of Kason: The Bodhisatta was born in 623 B.C.
    Saturday, Full Moon Day of Waso: Buddha preached the first discourse, Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta to the five ascetics.
    Sunday, New Moon Day of Kason: The Buddha's body was cremated.

Seven Qualities of an Ariya;

    rich in faith (saddha dhana);
    morality (sila dhana);
    concientiousneus (hiri dhana)
    fear of blame (ottappa dhana);
    quality of listening (suta dhana))
    generosity (caga dhana);
    wisdom (panna dhana).


Eight Constituents of the Path, Eightfold Path, Noble Ariya Atthangika Magga, (magganga)

    right understanding (samma ditthi);
    right thought (samma sankappa),
    right speech (samma vaca;
    right action (samma kammanta);
    right livelihood (samma ajiva);
    right effort (samma vayama);
    right mindfulness (samma sati);
    right concentration (samma samadhi).

Eight Precepts

    1. Panatipata veramani sikkhapadam samadiyami I undertake the precept to refrain from killing living beings.
    2. Adinnadana veramani sikkhapadam samadiyami I undertake the precept to refrain from taking that which is not given. (Stealing)
    3. Abrahmacariya veramani sikkhapadam samadiyami I undertake the precept to refrain from any sexual activity.
    4. Musavada veramani sikkhapadam samadiyami I undertake the precept to refrain from telling lies.
    5. Suramerayamajja pamadatthana veramani sikkhapadam samadiyami I undertake the precept to refrain from intoxicating drinks and drugs which lead to carelessness.
    6. Vikalabhojana veramani sikkhapadam samadiyami I undertake the precept to refrain from eating after noon. (i.e., after 12 noon; Exceptions if needed: honey, molasses, liquid sugars, oil and butter).
    7. Nacca-gita-vadita-visukkadassana mala-gandha-vilepana-dharana-mandana-vibhusanathana veramani sikkhapadam samadiyami I undertake the precept to refrain from dancing, singing, music, going to see entertainments, wearing garlands, using perfumes, jewellery, and beautifying the body with cosmetics.
    8. Uccasayana-mahasayana veramani sikkhapadam samadiyami I undertake the precept to refrain from lying on a high or luxurious sleeping place.

Eight qualities of a good friend (Kalyanamitta)

    endowed with faith (saddha sampanna);
    endowed with virtue (sila sampanna);
    endowed with learning (suta sampanna);
    endowed with generosity (caga sampanna),
    endowed with effort (viriya sampanna);
    endowed with mindfulness (sati sampanna);
    endowed with concentration (samadhi sampanna);
    endowed with wisdom (panna sampanna).

Eight kind of madness (Ummattaka)

    frenzied with lust (kamummattaka);
    frenzied with hate (kodhummattaka);
    frenzied with wrong view (ditthummataka);
    frenzied with infatuation (mohummattaka);
    driven mad by yakkhas or demoniacal possession (yakkhummattaka),
    mad from organic disorders (pittummattaka);
    frenzied with intoxicants (surummattaka);
    maddened by misfortune (uyasanummattaka).

The Eight Atthakkhanas (Inopportune Times)

    Being born in the Hell/ Niraya
    Being born as animals
    Being born as petas
    Being born as Asaannatta-brahamas and Arupa-brahamas.
    Being born as a human being in the remote part of a country which can not be reached by Buddha and his disciples.
    Being born as a human being having the wrong view during the time of the Buddha and his Teachings.
    Being born as a human being with no intellingence to understand the teachings of the Buddha.
    Being born as a human being with adequate intellingence to understand the teachings of the Buddha but not in the time of the Buddha.

Eight different places of Niraya Realm ( Hell, devoid of happiness )



Nine benefits of Satipatthana Practice

mental piuification;
overcoming of sorrow (soka);
overcoming of lamentation (parideva);
overcoming of physical pain (kayika dukkha);
overcoming of grief (domanassa);
overcoming of defilements (kilesa);
detachment (viveka);
freedom (pamokkha);
liberation (vimokkha).


Ten Akusala Kammapathas
Paths to evil or demerit

3 bodily actions:

    Commiting Adultery and taking Intoxicants

4 verbal actions:

    Telling lies
    Setting one against others (slandering)
    Using rough and abusive words (rude speech)
    Indulging in unbeneficial speech

3 mental actions:

    Belief in false theoris
    Ill will

Ten Armies of Mara

    sensuous pleasures (kama);
    dissatisfaction (arati);
    hunger and thirst (khuppassa);
    craving (tanha);
    sloth and torpor (thina middha);
    fear (bhiru);
    doubt (vicikkicha);
    hypocrisy and obstinacy (makkha and thambha);
    gain, fame and reverence (labha, siloka and sakkara);
    self-exaltation and disparaging others (attukkamsana and paravambhana)

Ten Impermissible Meat (Akappiyamamsa)
Ten kinds of impermissible meats for the monks

The Flesh of elephant, horse, human, tiger, lion, leopard, bear, yak, dog and snake

Ten kinds of mind-defiling factors (Kilesas) have been enumerated as:

    greed , lobha;
    hatred, dosa;
    bewilderment, moha;
    conceit, mana;
    wrong view, ditthi;
    doubt, vicikiccha;
    mental torpor, thina;
    restlessness, uddhacca;
    shamelessness (to do evil), ahirika; and
    not fearing (to do evil), anottappa.

Ten kusala Kammapathas
tenfold wholesome course of action

3 bodily actions:

    avoidance of Killing
    avoidance of Stealing
    avoidance of unlawful sexual intercourse

4 verbal actions:

    avoidance of lying
    avoidance of slandering
    avoidance of rude speech
    avoidance of unbeneficial speech

3 mental actions:

    right views

Ten Meritorious Deeds(Punnakiriya vatthu)

    Generosity or charity , dana
    Morality or good moral conduct, sila
    Meditation, bhavana
    Paying due respect to those who are worthy of it, apacayana
    Helping others perform good deeds, veyyavacca
    Sharing of merit after doing some good deed, pattidana
    Rejoicing at others merit - making, pattanumodana
    Listening well to the Doctrine, dhammassavana
    Teaching the Doctrine, dhammadesana
    Straightening one's views, ditthizukammma.

Ten Samyojanas or Fetters
Bonds or fetters binding all beings to the wheel of existence.

(i) sakkaya ditthi: belief in atta or soul; ego illusion; the view that the body and mind is "myself".

(ii) vicikiccha. doubt or wavering concerning the Buddha's Enlightenment, his Teaching, and his Order.

(iii)silabbataparamasa: the belief that there are practices and paths other than the Ariya Path of Eight Constituents, that can liberate one from dukkha.

(iv) kamaraga: sensual desire; attachment to and satisfaction in sensual objects such as colours, shapes, sounds, odours, tastes, tactual objects.

(v)patigha: ill will, including feelings of hatred, anger, resentment, revulsion, dissatisfaction, aversion, annoyance, disappointment.

(vi) ruparaga:(a) craving for existence in the Fine- Material (Brahma) realms; (b) desire for the bliss, the tranquillity, the attractive flavour or the various stages of concentration on forms, or colours, or materiality.

(vii) aruparaga: (a) craving for existence in the Formless (i.e., with only mind and no body) (Brahma) realms; (b) desire for the bliss, the tranquillity, the attractive flavour of full concentration on objects other than forms, such as space or Consciousness or emptiness.

(viii) mana: pride, awareness of superiority or inferiority; the illusion of having this or that status relative to one another.

(ix) uddhacca: restlessness; agitation; mental unrest, distraction, lack of peace and quiet (arising from curiosity, inquisitiveness).

(x) Avijja:Ignorance, lack of correct knowledge as to the nature of existence, it is the main root of dukkha and of rebirth.


Eleven Advantages of Metta Bhavana

    sleeps well (sukham supati);
    wakes in comfort (sukham patzbujjhati,
    dreams no evil dreams (na papakam supinam passati,
    dear to and beloved by human beings (manussanam piyo hoti);
    dear to and beloved by non-human beings (amanussanam piyo hoti;
    deities guard him (devata rakkhanti;
    not affected by fire, poison and weapons (nassa aggi va visam va sattham va kamati;
    mind easily concentrated (tuva tam cittam samadhiyati);
    serene facial expression (mukhavanno vippasidati).
    dies unconfused (assammutho kalam karoti},
    reappears in Brahma world (uttarim appativijjhanto Brahmalokupago hoti)


Twelve kinds of Bhikkhu

        1-4: four persons who attain the realization of Magga (Path);
        5-8: four persons who attain the realization of Phala (Fruit);
        9-12: four persons who are striving through Vipassana Meditation to attain the four stages of realization.

Twelve 'bases' or 'sources' on which depend the mental processes (Ayatanas)

    six personal (ajjhattika) bases=five physical sense-organs + consciousness
    six external (bahira) bases or objects=five physical sense-consciousness, such as

1. eye, or visual organ visible object,
2. ear, or auditory organ sound, or audible object,
3. nose, or olfactory organ odour, or olfactive object ,
4. tongue, or gustatory organ taste, or gustative object,
5. body, or tactile organ body-impression, or tactile object and 6. mind-base, or consciousness mind-object (manayatana) (dhammayatana)


13 dhutangas or strict observances

    wearing patched-up robes
    wearing only three robes
    going for alms
    not omitting any house whilst going for alms
    eating at one sitting
    eating only from the alms-bowl
    refusing all further food
    living in the forest
    living under a tree
    living in the open air
    living in a cemetery
    being satisfied with whatever dwelling
    sleeping in the sitting position (and never lying down)


18 physical and mental elements that constitute the process of perception

    visual organ (eye)
    auditory organ (ear)
    olfactory organ (nose)
    gustatory organ (tongue)
    tactile organ (body)
    visible object
    sound or audible object
    odour or olfactive object
    gustative object
    mind-element (mano-dhatu)
    mind-object (dhamma-dhatu)
    mind-consciousness-element (mano-vinnana-dhatu)


Thirty-seven bodhipakkhiya-dhamma : dhamma which should be attempted with energy and determination

The Four Satipatthana

The Four Sammappadhana

The Four Iddhipadas

The Five Indriya

The Five Bala (or Balani)

The Seven Sambojjhanga

The Eight Magganga

Ref: Bodhipakkhiya Dipani, The Manual of The Factors Leading to Enlightenment IV, The Four Iddhipadda by Mahathera Ledi Sayadaw, Aggamahapandita, D.Litt.

"DHAMMA RATANA", Vol. 1, Ashin Kundalabhivamsa, 1998

"On the Path to Freedom", By Sayadaw U Pandita, 1995

"The Teachings of the Buddha", the Ministry of Religious Affairs, Myanmar, 1997

"Ten Suttas from Digha Nikaya", Burma Pitaka Association, Rangoon, 1984

"A Dictionary of Buddhist Terms", Ministry of Religious Affairs, Myanmar, 1996