Articles by alphabetic order
 Ā Ī Ñ Ś Ū Ö Ō
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0


From Tibetan Buddhist Encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

papañca: (Sanskrit prapañca): In doctrinal usage, it signifies the expansion, differentiation, 'diffuseness' or 'manifoldness' of the world; and it may also refer to the 'phenomenal world' in general, and to the mental attitude of 'worldliness'. In A. IV, 173, it is said: "As far as the field of sixfold sense-impression extends, so far reaches the world of diffuseness (or the phenomenal world; papañcassa gati); as far as the world of diffuseness extends, so far extends the field of sixfold sense-impression. Through the complete fading away and cessation of the field of sixfold sense-impression, there comes about the cessation and the coming-to-rest of the world of diffuseness (papañca-nirodho papañca-vupasamo)." The opposite term nippapañca is a name for Nibbāna (S. LIII), in the sense of 'freedom from samsaric diffuseness'. - Dhp. 254: "Mankind delights in the diffuseness of the world, the Perfect Ones are free from such diffuseness" (papañcābhiratā pajā, nippapañca tathāgatā). - The 8th of the 'thoughts of a great man' (mahā-purisa-vitakka; A. VIII, 30) has: "This Dhamma is for one who delights in non-diffuseness (the unworldly, Nibbāna); it is not for him who delights in worldliness (papañca)." - For the psychological sense of 'differentiation', see M. 18 (Madhupiṇḍika Sutta): "Whatever man conceives (vitakketi) that he differentiates (papañceti); and what he differentiates, by reason thereof ideas and considerations of differentiation (Papañca-saññā-saṅkhā) arise in him." On this text and the term papañca, see Dr. Kurt Schmidt in German Buddhist Writers (WHEEL 74/75) p. 61ff. - See D. 21 (Sakka's Quest; WHEEL 10, p.

In the commentaries, we often find a threefold classification taṇhā-, diṭṭhi-, māna-papañca, which probably means the world's diffuseness created hy craving, false views and conceit. - See M. 123; A. IV, 173; A. VI, 14, Sn. 530, 874, 916.
Ñāṇananda Bhikkhu, in Concept and Reality: An Essay on Papañca and Papañca-saññā-saṅkhā (Kandy 1971, Buddhist Publication Society), suggests that the term refers to man's "tendency towards proliferation in the realm of concepts" and proposes a rendering by "conceptual proliferation," which appears convincing in psychological context, e.g. in two of the texts quoted above, A. IV, 173 and M. 18. - The threefold classification of papañca, by way of craving, false views and conceit, is explained by the author as three aspects, or instances, of the foremost of delusive conceptualisations, the ego-concept.

Papañca [in its P. meaning uncertain whether identical with Sk. prapañca (pra+pañc to spread out; meaning "expansion, diffuseness, manifoldedness"; cp. papañceti & papañca 3) more likely, as suggested by etym. & meaning of Lat. im -- ped -- iment -- um, connected with pada, thus perhaps originally "pa -- pad -- ya," i. e. what is in front of (i. e. in the way of) the feet (as an obstacle)] 1. obstacle, impediment, a burden which causes delay, hindrance, delay DhAi.18; ii.91 (kathā˚). ˚ŋ karoti to delay, to tarry J iv.145; ˚ŋ akatvā without delay J i.260; vi.392. -- ati˚ too great a delay J i.64; ii.92. -- 2. illusion, obsession, hindrance to spiritual progress M i.65; S i.100; iv.52, 71; A ii.161 sq.; iii.393 sq.; Sn 530 (=taṇhā -- diṭṭhi -- mānabheda -- p. SnA 431; and generally in Commentaries so resolved, without verbal analysis); Ud 77 (as f. papañcā); Th 1, 519, 902, 989 (cp. Brethren 344, 345 & J.R.A.S. 1906, 246 sq.; Neumann trsls "Sonderheit," see Lieder p. 210, 211 & Mittlere Sammlung i.119 in trsl. of M i.65 nippapañca); Dh 195, 254 (˚âbhiratā pajā, nippapañcā Tathāgatā; =taṇhādisu p˚ esu abhiratā DhA iii.378); J i.9; Pv iv.134 (=taṇh' -- ādi -- p. PvA 230); Nett 37, 38; SnA 495 (gihi). -- nippapañca (q. v.) without obsession. <-> 3. diffuseness, copiousness SnA 40.

-- sankhā sign or characteristic of obsession Sn 874 (cp. SnA 553; =taṇhā˚ diṭṭhi˚ and māna˚ Nd1 280), 916 (=avijjādayo kilesā mūlaŋ SnA 562). -- saññāsankhā) idea of obsession, idée fixe, illusion D ii.277 (cp. Dial ii.312); M i.109, 112, 271, 383; S iv.71.