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1. Sumangala. Aggasāvaka of Dīpankara Buddha. J.i.29; Bu.ii.213.

2. Sumangala. One of the chief lay patrons of Kassapa Buddha (Bu.xxv.41; J.i.92).

He spread the ground with bricks of gold for a space of twenty usabhas and spent an equal sum on a monastery for the Buddha. . He saw a man sleeping, and thought to himself that the man must be a thief.

The man conceived a grudge against Sumangala, and burned his fields seven times, cut the feet off the cattle in his pen seven times, and burned his house seven times. Then knowing that Sumangala loved the Buddha's Gandhakuti, he also set fire to that.

It was burnt down by the time Sumangala could arrive there; seeing it, he clasped his hands, saying that now he could build another in its place. Then the thief went about with a knife concealed on him, waiting to kill Sumangala.

One day Sumangala held a great almsgiving, at the conclusion of which he said: "Sir, there is evidently an enemy of mine trying to do me harm. I have no anger against him, and will give over to him the fruits of this offering."

The thief heard and was filled with remorse, and begged his forgiveness. The thief was later born as a peta on Gijjhakuta. DhA.iii.61f.

3. Sumangala. City of birth of Sujāta Buddha (Bu.xiii.20; J.i.38). He preached his first sermon in the park in the city. BuA.168.

4. Sumangala. The city where Piyadassī Buddha preached to [Pālita]] and Sabbadassī, who later became his chief disciples. BuA.176.

5. Sumangala. A king of seven hundred kappas ago, a previous birth of Susārada (Phaladāyaka) Thera. ThagA.i.167; Ap.i.161.

6. Sumangala. Nineteen kappas ago there were several kings of this name, previous births of Khitaka Thera. ThagA.i.209.

7. Sumangala Thera. He was born in a poor family in a hamlet near Sāvatthi.

When he grew up, he earned his living in the fields. One day he saw Pasenadi hold a great almsgiving to the Order, and, seeing the food served to the monks, desired to enter the Order that he might lead a life of ease and luxury.

A Thera to whom he confessed his desire ordained him, and sent him to the forest with an exercise for meditation.

In solitude he pined and wavered, and finally returned to his village.

As he went along he saw men working in the fields in the hot wind, with soiled garments, covered with dust.

And thinking how miserable they were, he put forth fresh effort in his meditations, and, winning insight, attained arahantship.

In the past he saw Siddhattha Buddha (? Atthadassī Buddha) standing in one robe, after a bath. Pleased with this sight, he clapped his hands. One hundred and sixteen kappas ago he was twice king, under the name of Ekacintita. Thag.vs.43; ThagA.i.111f.; Ap.i.147f.

8. Sumangala Thera. An arahant. One hundred and eighteen kappas ago he was a brahmin.

One day, having made preparations for a great sacrifice, he saw Piyadassī Buddha arriving at his door with one thousand arahants, and placed all the food in his house at the disposal of the Buddha and his monks. Ap.i.65f.

9. Sumangala. A Pacceka Buddha. M.iii.70; ApA.i.107.

10. Sumangala. A park keeper of the king of Benares. See the Sumangala Jātaka. He is identified with Ananda. J.iii.444.

11. Sumangala. A monk of Ceylon, pupil of Sāriputta.

He wrote a tīkā on the Abhidhammāvatāra, called the Abhidhammattha-vibhāvinī (P.L.C. 108, 173).

He also wrote the Sāratthasālinī, on the Saccasankhepa. P.L.C.200; Gv.62, 72.

12. Sumangala. The tenth future Buddha, the first being Metteyya. Anāgat., p.40.