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Kalpa Sūtra.

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A V A T A T V A :










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The Jains are now well known to the learned in Europe as the only representatives in Hindustan of the adherents to the tenets of Buddhism, a religious community once so numerous in India Proper, and still embracing so many of the inhabitants of the neighbouring countries of Ceylon, Tibet, Burma, China,, and its adjacent territories. Without the least disparagement to the learned dissertations that have been published on the Jains, I trust that the follow in-' translations, the one, that of their most sacred religious work, and the other, that of their most popular philosophical essay, will not he unacceptable to those who take an interest in the history of the religious opinions and philosophy ol India.

< >the eight day in the middle of the rains which are devoted to the reading of those works esteemed peculiarly sacred, no l»» than five are


allotted to the Kalpa Sutra, the first of the works here presented to the English reader. It commences, and is chiefly occupied, with the legendary history of Mahavira, the last of those deified spi- ritual legislators, called by the Jains, Tirthankaras. To this are appended the lives of other four sages of the same class, and in some copies those of the whole twenty-four, though it is nearly certain that all of these are by a later hand, and that none except the first, or at any rate the five to whom the precedence is given, are genuine productions of the reputed author. Mahavira, by the Jains of the Carnatic, is said to have died B.C. 663, by those of Bengal, according to Mr. Colebrooke, in B.C. 637, by those in Gujarath, in B.C. 527, or as they state it, 470 years before the commencement of the era of Vikrama. Mr. Prinsep in his Useful Tables, Part II. , p. 33, makes this event to have happened in B.C. 569, at the age of seventy. This I am inclined to believe is the correct date, not only on account of Mr. Prinsep's great accuracy and tact in all these matters, but also because it agrees best with the statement of the Jains, that Mahavira was the preceptor of the great Gautama Buddha. The


Ceylonese date of the death of Buddha is b.c. 543, and the death of the Tirthankara having taken place in B.G 569, we obtain the reasonable period of twent \ -i\ years, for the demise of the preceptoi before bis pupil The Kalpa Sutra, according to a date embodied in the work itself, was composed 980 years after the demise of Mahavira, that is to Bay, a.d. ill. The public reading of the work took place twelve years afterwards, as narrated in the Introduction. The author's name was Bhadra Bahu, and the sovereign who then reigned in Gujarath, was Dhruva Sena The four commentators who, between the fifteenth and seventeenth centuries, have commented on the work, are Yasovijaya, whose Sanskrit work, called Sakhabadha, has been used in making the annexed translation, Drichandra, the Gujarathi translator chiefly fol- lowed, and Jnanavimala, and Samayasundara.

There is bo little of Eastern extravagance exhi- bited in tin- age and date of the death ofMahavira, that one is -I'd for once t" escape exposure to the spirit of Bcepticism which bo generally haunts the European in his antiquarian researches in India. and t.. grant the author all he demands. The name


of the sovereign reigning in Gujarath at the time, is an important element here, for there are two Dhruva Senas among the Balabhi monarchs, who, at the period above specified, swayed the sceptre in that part of India. The first, indeed, is too early for our purpose, but allowing the second of that name to be in the last year of his reign, as he well might, having lost a grown-up son, then on an average of twenty-one years to him, and his four predecessors, there will be an exact coincidence between our date of the first public reading of the Kalpa Sutra, and that found on the Gujarath copper-plate grants of the first Sridhava Sena* In accordance with this early date, the state of civili- zation described in this work is higher than we have any reason to believe has existed among the Hindus, since the first centuries of our era, and the state of Brahmanical literature, as here depicted, without any mention of the Purans, tends to the same con- clusion. The commentator, indeed, in this latter

Dated Samvat 375, i.e., a.d. 318, i.e., 5 x 21 = 105, which, added to 318, gives 423=411 x 12. There is no such name, Ave may remark, as Dhrava Sena in the modern or restored Ballnira dynasty

point, supplies the omission of the author, and clubs in those modern records of traditions along with tin* more ancient [tihasa. showing the altered state of things when he wrote* 1 of course take it for granted that the author describes the man- ners of his own time and place, and not those of the sixth century before our era at Kundagrama and Rajagriha, in Berar, where the scene of his hero's piety and labours is Laid. It is a pity the work is so entirely confined to its subject, and thai we have none of those historical notices which render the Ceylonese MahaVanso so interesting to Europeans.

I was at first inclined to stop my remarks on

the history of the Jain religion at this point, and to concede that through the natural change to which all systems of opinion are liable, it had arisen at the period in question from a corruption of the Buddhistical religion, bu1 a close attention to the list of Theros (Sans. Sthlravara) or head teachers from Mahavira to the author's time, which forms a pari of the work, especially the unbroken- of i he chain, and t lie reasonable Dumber of ich, has made me hesitate about


the correctness of such an assumption. From Mahavira upwards, indeed, to the preceding Tir- thankara Parsvan&th, we have no list of head teachers, but we have only an interval of 250 vears, while the term of Parsva's sublunary exis- tence is still bounded by the possible number of a hundred years. So far the Jains are reasonable, and measured in their eras, compared with Brah- mans and Buddhists ; for even the latter throw Sakya's predecessor back to an immense period before the advent of the present Buddha.

The moderation of the Jains, up to the time of Piirs- vanatha, is the more remarkable, as after that they far outstrip all their compeers in the race of absurditv, making the lives of their Tirthankars extend to thousands of years, and interposing between them countless ages, thus enabling us to trace with some confidence the boundary between the historical and the fabulous.

There are, however, yet one or two other points in the accounts the Jains give us, which seem to have a historic bear- ing. The first is the relation said to have sub- sisted between the last Buddha and the last Tir- thankara, the Jains making Mahavira, Gautama's preceptor, and him the first and favourite pupil of bis master. Yet they tell us that not be, but Sridharma, became bead of the community after tlif Tirthankara's death.

When pressed for the reason they are silent and mysterious, evidently averse to disclose the Pact that be became the founder of a new and rival sect, which for a long time wholly eclipsed their own. Nor are we to look for any hint of this kind in the writings of the Buddhists, as nothing could be said upon the subject without leading to an avowal that thegreai Sage himself had had an instructor. In favour of the Jain theory, however, it may lie noticed, that Buddha is said to have seen twenty-four of his predecessors* while in the present Kappo he had but four. The Jains, consistently with their theory, make Mahavlra to have scon twenty-three of bis pred— re, all thai existed before him in the presenl age. This pari of Buddhism then evidently implies the knowledge of the twenty- four Tirthankars of the Jains. Gautama, bow- ever, by the force of natural genius, threw their system entirely into the shade, till the waning light of Buddhism permitted its fainter radiance to reappear on the Western horizon""*.

Mahavira then, the great hero, as the name implies, of the Jain religion, was a Digambara, and went about in -a state of perfect nudity. Parsva- nath, and all his predecessors, if he had any, were clothed in decent apparel, with the single exception of BAshabha, of whom we shall immediately speak. Mahavira, no doubt, considered the innovation he had made in the established system, a reformation, and necessary to show the perfect sage's entire superiority to all worldly feelings and passions. The common sense of Gautama led him to see that the natural and universal sentiments of mankind cannot be set at nought, or opposed with impunity, and, therefore, he moved about clothed in yellow garments. It was not unlikely, on this very point, that the split took place between him and the other chief men of the Jain community. In modern times, however, the great majority of them

After writing the above, I found my conclusion antici- pated by Mr. Colebrooke, and am happy therefore that it now goes abroad with the suffrage of so learned an Orientalist. — Trims. E.A.S., vol. i., p. 522.

\\u\r virtually confessed the superior wisdom of Buddha, by baking a lesson from his [nstitute, and wearing plain white garments, (on which accounl they are called Svetambaras), clothing themselves without Bervilely copying the yellow robes of the Buddhist priesthood, leaving such mimicry to Hindu Bairagfs and Gosains, sectaries who endea- vour to combine the Buddhistical monkery wit h I he Brahmanical theology. The of the Digam- bara practice is said by the other party to have taken place through the efforts of Sahasra Mallika, about a century before the commencement of our era, since which time the Beets have kept entirely separate from one another. It is much more likely ver, from what is said above, that theSvetam- party originated about that time, and not the I tigambara.

The second point in the Jain traditions which I imagine has a historical basis, is the account they give of the religious practice of Rishabha, the first of their Tirthankara He, too, like Mahavfra, is Baid to have been a Digambara. In the Brahma- nical Puranic records, he is placed Becond on the kings, in one of the regal families, and said

to have been father to that Bharat from whom India took its name. He is also said, in the end of his life, to have abandoned the world, going about everywhere as a naked ascetic. It is so seldom that Jains and Brahmans agree, that I do not see how we can refuse them credit in this instance where they do so, the only point of difference between the two parties being, that while the Jams maintain that Bishabha followed an insti- tute worthy of being adopted by sages in every age, the Brahmans stoutly maintain that no one is authorized to follow his example. How- ever this may be, it is certain that even accord- ing to the traditions preserved by the Brah- mans themselves, Bishabha, Kapila, Gautama, and other sages, maintained opinions, and followed practices, which vary much from the present orthodox standard, and if in these early ages there was no regular Jain or Buddhistical organization as little was there an exclusive Brahmanism. The truth seems to be, that at the period referred to there was no regular division of caste among the people, of schools among the philosophers, nor of sects among religionists. All shades of opinion

and practice were tolerated ; the broachers of new theories, and the introducers of new rites did not revile the established religion, and the adherents of the old Vedic system of elemental worship Looked on the new notions as speculations they could not comprehend, and the new austerities as the exercise of a self-denial they could not reach, rather than as the introduction of heresy and schism. And such, it may be remarked in pass- ing, is the vcrv view taken of the opinions and practices of Bairagfs and Gosdins by nine-tenths of tin' Hindus of tin* present day. After a time however, either sectarian zeal became too strong for its possessors to abstain from taunting the followers of the old system with their obtuseness, or the others, alarmed at the prevalence of these novelties, ran with tire and sword to the rescue of the old superstitions, and thus a schism was perpe- trated, which, at one particular era at least, that in which Buddhism fell and the modem Saiva in of Hinduism was established, made India h field of contention to opposing religious - and with the extermination of that religion which had been dominant during the period of i ; ~ great*

est glory, occasioned the loss of those historical documents, which recorded the largesses and ex- ploits of the sovereigns of a hostile faith. Daring the early ages, the religious warfare in India was carried on, as far as we can learn, chiefly by the legitimate weapons of discussion and argument, though the edicts of Asoka, no doubt, had argu- ments founded on the logic of the Emperor, as well as on that of the Dialectician. The open practice of sacrifice, and other Brahmanical rites, was prohibited ; but there was no reason for sup- posing that, while the Buddhists had the supe- riority, they ever so far contradicted the precepts of their religion as to shed the blood of their fel- low creatures in a holy war. The same cannot be said of the Brahmans, who themselves admit that, under the direction of Kumarilla Bhatta, about the eighth century of our era, carnal weapons were employed to put down the Buddhistical and exalt the Saiva faith.

The last division of the Kalpa Sutra is a digest of monkish rules, to guide the sages during the Paryushana, or Lenten period, a section of the book which requires no remark. It may be useful, how-


ever, to exhibit in a few articles the Jain belief on those points which to a European (though not always to an Indian) Beem of first importance.

1. The Jains then believe that the world, con- sisting of intellectual as well as material principles, has existed from all etemitv, under"-<.iir>- an infi- oite number of revolutions, produced -imply by the inherent physical and intellectual powers of nature. without the intervention of any eternal Deity, Q0 such Being, distinct from the world, having any existence, though certain of the world's elements, when properly developed, obtain deilieat ion.

■1. That in every great cycle of years twenty- four Tirthankars are manifested in the Bharat Khanda of Jambu Dvipa, our India. These are not only S&dhus, rising from manhood to deity. by the force of meditation, but are also Divine dators, each laying down a particular institute for the purification of mankind : whence they derive their name". Though at present there are do Tirthankars in India, in other terrestrial districts there are no Less than twenty.

3. That the country of Bharat, our India, and an equal portion on the other side of the globe called Airavartta, are alone subject to a depopu- lating catastrophe at the end of a great cycle of years. The rest of the terrestrial circle, either inhabited by Mlechchhas, Barbarians, or by Yugalas, hermaphrodites not exposed to toil, or the subjects of virtue and vice, remains unchanged.

4. That shortly after the desolation of the abode of man, above mentioned, colonies of Yugalas came from their own proper continent to repeople the waste territories, and from change of situation and manner of living become men, and give rise to a new race of human beings. The Jains, how- ever, leave unexplained how these Yugalas began to exist, and hide themselves amid the darkness of their prime absurdity — an infinite succession of finite beings.

5. They maintain, like the Brahmans, that there is a number of heavens and hells, for temporary rewards and punishments. The gods whom they allow to possess several of these heavens are but beings, who were once men or animals, enjoying the reward of inferior kinds of merit, and who must

descend again to earth, and be born anew, mid - tinue ever in the world of transmigrations, unless they heroin. The chief of these gods is

named S;ikra. or in Magadhi, Sakke, the Sakk the Buddhists, and the Indra of the Brahmans. The modern Jains have made of the one, sixty- four Sakras, and surname the lord of heaven, Sudharma.

G. The sage, who by meditation frees his mind from all worldly attachments, obtains at d Nirvana, a state of perfect bliss, perfect know! and freedom from all pain and mutation, ascends to the highest heavens, called Siddha Sila (the Rock of the Perfect), and exalted far above the gods, becomes a special object of adoration to gods and men.

7. The Jain community consists of two sections, somewhat analogous to our clergy and Laity, each section embracing both males and finales. The clerical males are named S&dhus, i.e., S All profess celibacy, live in mom

or houses, in communities of from four or five to a hundred, in subjection to an abbot, and perform all the pri< bs of the Jain religion. The Sad-

hwinisj or Nuns, live also in separate communities,

but these now are very few in number. The Jain laity are called Sravakas, i.e., Hearers ; the females being termed properly Sravakis. They have among them a modified form of caste ; and what wonder, since in Southern India Mohammedans and Chris- tians have the same ? They practise also a number of aboriginal and Brahmanical superstitions, at which the priesthood wink, though they disapprove of them.

8. The practical part of the Jain religion con- sists in the performance of five duties, and the avoidance of five sins. The duties are, 1st, mercy to all animated beings ; 2nd, almsgiving ; 3rd, venerating the sages while living, and worshipping their images when deceased ; 4th, confession of faults ; 5th, religious fasting. The sins are, 1st, killing ; 2nd, lying ; 3rd, stealing ; 4th, adultery ; 5th, w 7 orldly-mindedness.

9. A striking feature of the Jain religion is, the keeping of the season of religious meditation, reading, and fasting, called the Paryiishana, or, popularly, Pajjusan. It corresponds to the Buddhist Wasso, and is divided into two parts, the fifty days that precede, and the seventy that succeed

the iii'th of Bhadra, Sukla Paksha. The Svetam- baras fast during the former period, and the Digambaraa during the Latter. The Paryushana this year (1847) will commence about the 26th of July, but by the neglect of t! >n of the

equinoxes it Lb too late by three weeks, like ;ill other Hindu festivals that have reference to the solar revolution, and therefore does not so well correspond to the four months of the rainy season in ( rujarath and Upper India as it otherwise would have done.

10. Tin- last thing I shall advert to is the existence anion-- the Jains of the confessional, and the necessity that exists of confessing at least once a year to a priest, and obtaining from him ghostly absolution. Burdened consciences confess at all times, and have various kinds of fasts im- posed on them as penances. It is, however, onlj at the eoimnencement of the holy season that it is considered imperative upon every good Jain t.> confess to a priest. I must own that I was at first a little startled at the discovery of this article in the Jain creed, and thought I must have made some mistake in interpreting the word Padikaman

(Sans. Pratikramana), by which term the duty is technically expressed ; but abundant oral and written explanations, as well as the context of several passages where the word occurs, have re- moved every doubt. The Gujarathi word that expresses the priestly absolution, is Alavan. Al- though the rite of confession does not, as far as I can learn, exist among the Buddhists, it most likely had its origin in India in an early age, and along with other opinions and practices, travelled westward in the early centuries of Christianity, and obtained incorporation with a purer faith.

For an "account of the Jain uranography and geography, I must refer the reader to the Asiatic Researches, vol. ix. Their system seems to have been formed before that of the Brahmans, as they have but three terrestrial continents and two seas. It contains, however, numberless absurdities, and has not the slightest title to the name of science. An arc of a circle, whose diameter is a hundred thousand yojanas, is made to represent the coast of India from the Ganges to the Indus, shewing an utter ignorance of the existence even of the Penin- sula. No wonder Ptolemy erred, when natives blundered so egregiously. The same absurdity is embodied in the system of the Brahmans. A word of explanation is required relative to the two Jain cycles, called Avasarpini and Utsarpini, whose lengths are exactly the same. The reader is to fancy a serpent in infinite space, coiled up, so thai the tail shall touch tlir head. The earth is now moving down this serpent from the head to the tail, therefore this is an Avasarpini (going down the serpent). When it arrives at the extremity of the tail it cannot go on, but must return, and its progress upwards is called an Utsarpini (going up the serpent). Each of these periods is divided into six aras or eras, comprehending ten crores (100,000,000) of Bagaras of years. A sagara or ocean of years, my Jain informant assures me, (though Air. O'lehruokes explanation of this knotty point is a little different), is the number of the small points of tin- excessively lino hair of Yugalas, which a pit of the dimensions of ;i cubic yojana would contain, the hairs being bo closely packed together that a river of water running over them would nol dislodge one of them.

different Tirthankars, it may strike the reader that there is no vestige of anything like the Buddhist Chaitya in any of them. This arises from one remarkable feature of dissimilarity between the Jains and Buddhists. The Dagoba, or Buddhist Chaitya, was a place originally appropriated to the preservation of relics, a practice as abhorrent to the feelings of the Jains as it is to those of the Brahmans. The word Chaitya, when used by the Jains, means any image or temple dedicated to the memory of a Tirthankar.

The Philosophical Tract at the end of the book, as well as the Kalpa Sutra, has already been analyzed by Mr. Colebrooke, yet I trust the learned reader will be glad also to see it entire. I have enjoyed advantages in the study of the Jain literature on this side of India, which are unattainable in Bengal ; yet, wherever I have had occasion to differ in the sense of any passage from that learned Orientalist, the reader may rest assured that I have first of all well weighed the comments of the Annotator, as well as carefully studied the context, before I have come to a decision. The Jams, while well acquainted

with, and frequently referring to, the Sankliya, Nyaya, ( !harvaka, and Yaishesika systems of Hindu philosophy, do not acknowledge the Vedanta. This is one of several reasons which makes me suspect that the whole of the Upanishads, as well as the Purans, have been composed since the fall of Buddhism, the latter, no doubt, to till up the blank left in history by the destruction or neglect of Buddhist works, and the former to till up a similar chasm in the systems of philosophy.

I have considered it expedient to write the proper names and technical terms, generally ac- cording to the Sanskrit form, rather than accord- ing to the original orthography. The modern Jains themselves have substituted the Sanskrit for the Magadhi in their religious writings, and the sight of an ugly mark of interrogation, stuck to the end of such a word as Pajushan, even in the Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society^ would have Beared a stouter heart thai) mine from the use of .the Magadhi orthography. On the nature of the language Itself, and the form it assumes in the Jain literatureome remarks are made in the Appendix


With all the attention I have been able to be- stow, and the care I have exercised to avoid error, I am not sanguine enough to supjDOse that future inquirers will not detect blemishes and mistakes in my translation and remarks ; yet, if I shall have succeeded in any degree in throwing light on the workings of the human mind, and on the history of a sect interesting in itself, but especially so in its relation to Buddhism, I shall not consider my labour lost.



 Bishabha Yellow Bull.

Ajita Ditto Elephant.

Sambhava Ditto Horse.

Abhinandana Ditto \|>e.

Sumati (a female) Ditto Curlew.

Padmaprabha Bed Bed Lotus.

Supaxsra Yellow The figure Svastica.

Chandraprabha White The Mi or Crescent.

Pusbpadanta Ditto Crocodile.

Sitala Fellow The figure Srivatea.

Sreyansa Ditto Rhinoceros.

\ pujya Bed Buffalo.

Vimala fellow Boar.

Ananta Ditto Falcon.

Dharma Ditto Spike-headed club.

Santi Ditto Antelope.

Kuntliu I >itto < ••

An Ditto The figure Nandayartta.

Malli Blue A Water Jar.

Surrata Black Tortoise.

Nam Yellow Blue Lotus.

Nemi Black Cotieli.

i Blue i Serpent.

Vardham&na Yellow Lion.




Km. ( >m." Adoration to the propitious Pdrsvandtha.

Having prostrated myself before the glorious Mahavfra, and brought before the mind Gautama, the Religious Instructor, I proceed to expound the Kalpa Sutra in the comment called the Kal- palatd.

Eleligion is the vital principlet of the world,

 * Em means the female energy or cause of the world, and (hi the male, answering to our material and efficieni causes. This line is merely prefixed by the scribe, and does nol b ti> the work.

t I have rendered IJT'^' by these two phrases, as the I I

could think of.

The v. hole sentence which holds here bo important a place is

as follows



since it is the first cause of all felicity. It pro- ceeds from man, and it is by it also that man attains the chief good*. From religion, birth in a good family is obtained, bodily health, good fortune, long life, and prowess. From religion also spring pure renown, a thirst for knowledge, and increase of wealth. From the darkest gloom, and every dreaded ill, religion will ever prove a saviour. Religion when duly practised bestows heaven, and final emancipationt.

The Sages who, maintaining the regular suc- cession of spiritual authority, sit four months yearly at Anandapura|, the sacred place appointed by our ancient Teachers, for the purpose of read- ing to the select congregated multitude our religious books, read also to obtain merit, for five days and nine kshafias, before a public assembly the propitious Kalj)a Sutra§.

Kalpa here means the religious practice of the Sagesll; and in it there are ten varieties : 1st,

 * Vide preceding note.

X This city is now called in Gujarathi, Badnagar. § The former of these two assemblies is composed of the priesthood alone. The reason of the difference is given further


Achelakka; 2nd, CJdesla; 3rd, Siyyayara; 4th, Rayapitha; 5th, Kiikamme; 6th, Vaya; 7th, Jetha; s th, Padikamane; 9th, Masam; LOth, Pajjosavana*.

1. What, then, is meant by Achelakka? lie who is without chela, that is to say, clothing, is Achelakka, and the abstract muni formed from that it is Achailakyat (unclothedness). Achailakya is the attribute of Rishabha and MahavfraJ alone of all the principal Yatis, they having no other cloth- ing than some coveriai;- of old white cloth. Ajita and the rest of the twenty-two Tirthankara being dressed in clothes, valuable and of a variety of colours, though still with holy dispositions, are said to he in the state of Suchelakatwa (well- clothedness). Wliether any one else who dresses in coarse white clothes may be considered as in the state of Achailakya is not determined. To

those then belongs especially the 6rst Kalpa. * Tin- original M&gadhi words are its follows: —

The Sanskrit equivalents will booh appear in their pn per places in tlir b

t This is now the Sanskrit form introduced 1>\ the author, and continued during the whole paragraph, t«> tin- ei the Magadhi.

I Thai is to say, the firs! and last Tirtl &i

2. The second Kalpa is the Uddesika, or the accepting of necessaries without asking for them ; since such is the meaning of the word. It is an Institute intended for sages. Rice with split pulse, water, sweetmeats, betel-leaf with betel-nut, cloth- ing, vessels, a house and necessary furniture, may be received by such. This Institute belongs to the first and last of the Tirthankars. It may have reference to one, or to a company, or to a whole college of sages. It is not applicable to all the sages. To the twenty-two Tirthankars, and others who enjoy a superior regimen, it is inapplicable ; to the rest, however, it applies.

3. The Sidhyatara Kalpa"" has reference to a householder. To him belongs a superior regimen to that above mentioned ; viz., bread with rice and pulset, water, sweetmeats, betel-nut and leaf, clothes, vessels, blankets, a broom, a needle, pincers, a nail-parer, and ear-cleaner, these twelve different articles. This Institute is not applicable to the whole of the Jina Tirthankar Sages. Fur- ther, when there is a want of proper food in the place where a sage resides, or difficulty in procur-

In the Marathi language, f%%|T means prepared but uncooked victuals, as cleaned rice, &c.

f The original here is "3T"3$«T the same as above. The diil'erence of translation is owing to a difference in the comment.

big a residence, or danger of Hilling into sin*, the Sidhydtara may take from a disciple receiving reli- gious instructions, and freely giving them, grass, hardened eartht, ashes, an earthen panj, a high stool, a low stool, a couch, bedding, ointment, and so forth.

4. The fourth Kalpa is the Rajapinda, or royal establishment. Its constituent parts are — a com- mander-in-chief, a chief priest, a chief banker§, a prime cabinet minister, a master of the chariots, and, together with the protection of the realm. the before-mentioned twelve articles of regimen. Those things then belong only to an anointed king, and hence do not accord with the religious practice of the first and last Tirthankars. But the Rajapinda was possessed by the other twenty- two, ;it the same time that there was no imper- fection in their wisdom, and they were free from all sin.

 * The thing chiefly contemplated by Yatia lure is the prevalence of insects, and tin- consequenl danger of commit- ting sin by treading <>n them.

t Probably bricks hardened in the sun, so commonly used in [ndia for building.

§ A kind (if Rothschild, to supply the sovereign with

funds on emergencies Be is called lure ^jjjgt (whence the Gujarathi, S I holds to the State ;i relation Bomewhai

like that nC the Governor of the Hank of England.

5. The fifth Kalpa is Kritikarma. It consists of two parts ; first, the rising and standing upright ; and next, the performing of the twelve forms of salutation. This was incumbent upon all the Tirthankars, as w r ell as on other sages, and is to be performed by all to all mutually in the order of their initiation — the newly initiated sage is to be saluted with religious reverence, even by those who have been the longest time initiated ; for it is religion that gives man pre-eminence.

6. The sixth is the Vrita Kalpa. Vrita here means the highest kind of religious observances. These, in reference to the twenty-two Jina Sages, are four, since they are permitted to marry. But from the absence of all defect in wisdom, to the first and last Jina Sages they are fivet.

7. The seventh is called the Jyeshtha Kalpa. Here Jyeshtha means the chief or initiatory rite, and it is to this, as the commencement of a series of observances, that the Institute applies. The performance of the initiatory rite by the first and last Jinas, is to be counted from the time they

 * ^W^I^HTf "OT^ So are the words which I translate as above; the last word in another copy is omitted, and the meaning seems simply to be, that all sages are ren- dered equal by the possession of the religious character.

f These f oar principal virtues are the following: — Dana, Sila, Japa, Bhava. See Part I., Book I., chap. 8.

performed the Samayaka Charitra, and in relation to the intermediate Yatis, from the day of their

performing the Atichara Charitra.

8. The eighth is called the PratikramaAa Kalpa. The Atichara ceremony might be per- formed or not by Saint Rishabha and MahaVira, but the Pratikramana (going to confess to a spiritual guide) they were required to perform twice. On other Munis the Pratikramana is im- perative whenever they commit a fault, — otherwise it is not required.

9. The ninth is the Masakalpa. The Masa-kalpa, which is limited to the first and last Jinas, requires that no one stay longer at a place than a month. This was not imperative on the inter- mediate Jinas. On the contrary, some of them stayed in the same place for ten millions of years. The Institute does not require any one to stay in the same place for a month ; if he have a proper reason, he may leave during its currency.

10. The tenth is the Paryushana Kalpa. By Paryushana is meant the religious session of the Sages during the rains. This is a yearly festival, and it is positively enjoined that such a session of the Assembly Sages should com- mence "ii the fifth day after the new moon of Bhaclrapad*


I now proceed to mention the qualities of the place where the Institute of the Paryushana is to be performed. The Sages remain seventy days in the same place, unless there be a good reason for removing. Proper reasons for so doing are the following : Not being able to find a proper place to sleep on ; the difficulty of procuring provisions ; the occurrence of any disaster ; the fear of hostile sovereigns, disease, or bodily pain. In such cases it is lawful to remove to another place. A place is unfit, if it swarm with insects, if it be otherwise unclean, if there one is kept in dread of musqui- toes, fire, or serpents. In such cases it is proper to remove. Again, the Sages should remain after the four months are completed, if the rains con- tinue so as to make the roads impassable on ac- count of the mud. Then only, however, should the Sages remain beyond the month of Kartik. Places suitable for carrying on the religious exercises of the season are places where there is not much mud, where there are not many creeping insects, where there are no impurities, at a distance from women, where the produce of the cow abounds, where the body of the people is large and respect- able, where there are good physicians and medi-

 to shew the benefit of different forms of religious practice, all tending to prove that different dispositions require different treatment.

cines easily procurable, where there are the habit- ations of householders who are living with their families, where cattle and grain are abundant] where the king is a just ruler, where the Brahmans and those o\' their party do not treat our Munis with contempt, where food is easily procured, where reading of the sacred books can be purely performed, and where there is open and level ground to walk about. Such a place, then, is to be esteemed liavourable, and there the festival of the sacred rest is to be performed". When, thru, the Sages are met to keep the Paryushana, this Kalpa Sutra is to be read for the attainment of merit during five days. This Institute is like India among the gods, the Moon among the heavenly bodies, Rama among just rulers, Kama- deva among veil-proportioned men, Ilambha among beautiful women, Bhambha among musi- cians, Airavat among elephants, Havana among daring adventurers, Abhaya among wise men, Satrunjaya among holy placest, humility among virtuous qualities, gold among metals, the nine- Lettered among charms|, the strawberry mango-1 ree among trees, Sita among faithful wives, the Gita among inspired writings, musk among perfumes, gold sand* among articles of commerce, the pea- cock among dancers t, the five-marked colt^ among horses, the water of immortality among liquids, melted butter among gravies, the dutiful son Salabhadra among enjoyments, Santinath among the givers of gifts, Neminath among chaste reli- gious students, Nandana among forests, the Chan- dana among woods, friendship among virtues, and the Jain religion among; religions. In fine, the Kalpa Sutra is the gem in the crown of all reli- gious institutes. There is no god superior to the Arhat (Jam Sage§), no future bliss superior to Mukti (liberation), no holy place superior to Sri Satrunjaya, and no inspired book superior to the Sri Kalpa Sutra. This Kalpa is an ever-present Kalpa Druma (tree yielding whatever is desired), since, to speak of its several parts, the Sri Vira Charitra is the seed, the Sri Parswa Charitra is the sprout, the Sri Nemi Charitra is the stem, the Sri BAshabha Charitra is the branchy top, Sthaviravali

IS the blossoms, the knowledge of the Samachari is the scent, and the obtaining of liberation is the fruit. And why should I add more \ since from reading or giving aid at the lecture, or from listen- ing to all the letters of this Kalpa, along with the proper reverential ceremonies, emancipation is ob- tained alter the eighth transmigration, according to the following text: "0 Gautama, they who hear twenty-one times with an attentive mind the Institute of the Jain Religion, performing the proper reverence, and bringing the proper gifts to the venerable sages, are saved from this world's abyss." This treatise, then, is to be read on the fifth day after the new moon of Bhadra pad, accord- ing to our Institutions. Among the Digambara community, it is read during the eight days of the great festival of Jamah, when they continue tast- ing, and make the figure of Nandidrlpa under the inline of Yasodhara Charitra. It forms also part of tli-' Institute for the Kislii Panchami, the origin of which I now relate'". There was a certain Brahman in the city of Pushpavati, whose father and mother were dead. In process of time they

tin- is one I'i' the ln-.t of our author's Btories, and tends td show in what light the Jains view Brahmanism, I have given it a place in the text, ttis indeed a severe satire on those who entertain their friends from oppression, exercised towards their inferiors ami the brute creation.

were born anew in this their son's house, the former as a bull, and the latter as a bitch. By and bye also, the day of the festival for the manes came round. On it the son hired out the bullock to an oilman to labour at his oil-press, and having procured a sufficient quantity of milk, prepared rice and milk for the dinner of those Brahmans who came to the festival. At that juncture the bitch, in which was the soul of his mother, by a certain wonderful knowledge, saw the poison of a snake fall into the rice and milk""", and knowing- it would be the cause of great misfortune, went and took it out with her mouth. The Brahman flew at her in a passion, and almost broke her back for her pains, and went and tied her up in the cow- house, and afterwards prepared more rice and milk, and feasted his Brahman guests. In the evening the oilman bound up the bull in the cow-house, without giving him au article to eat or drink after his day's toil. There, looking at the suifering bitch, the bullock exclaimed, " What have I suf- fered to-day through this sinful son of mine ! " The bitch then also began to tell about the pain in her back ; when the son, who was lying down at no great distance, overheard their discourse, and understood that these were his father and mother.

Immediately he got up, and fed them witli the remains of the rice and milk, and, leaving home, weni to the Rishis*, to inquire bow his father and mother could be liberated from their present state. They, after informing him that the reason of their having been bora in these bestial forms, was their having devoted themselves to pleasure at improper seasons, commanded him, in order to obtain their liberation, to eat aothing procured by labour on that fifth day of the month, lie followed their directions, and the holiday afterwards became celebrated among the people as the Rishi Pan- chaml

I am dow to mention the author of the Kalpa Sii; . He was Sri Bhadra Bahu Svami, an accomplished scholar, who was well acquainted with the fourteen branches of his subjectt, and a dis- tinguished teacher. Taking for his guide the work named — the Da^alrutaskandha, Ash-

tamadhyayana, and the discourse called IVatva- khyana, in which he found nine branches — he composed the Kalpa Sutra. He wrote the first

and Brahman b. It was to Jain Sages, then, thai this Brahman and waa by them tanghl to change the mosl imperative feasi of hia religion into a fast. + In t be original U^f

branch with a solid piece of ink as large as an elephant, the second with a piece as large as two elephants, the third with one the size of eight, the fifth of sixteen, the sixth of thirty-two, the seventh of sixty-four, the eighth of one hundred and twenty-eight, the ninth of two hundred and fifty-six, the tenth of five hundred and twelve, the eleventh of one thousand and twenty-four, the twelfth of two thousand and forty-eight, the thir- teenth of four thousand and ninety-six, the four- teenth of eight thousand one hundred and ninety- two. So that the whole was written with sixteen thousand three hundred and eighty- three pieces of ink, each the size of an elephant"" ; and is there- fore called the Mahapurush (the great male)t. Its essence is most profound ; and therefore, though a man had a thousand tongues in one mouth, and in one breast perfect knowledge, still he would be unable duly to -celebrate the majesty of the Kalpa Sutra.

On the evening of the fifth day of the new moon of Bhadrapad, the reading of the sections of the Kalpa Siltra commenced. It was read, after mak-
This ridiculous story, with its geometrical progression, will serve to initiate the reader a little into the extravagant system of modern Jain exaggeration.

t This is a Brahmanical word for the Deity, and on that account here used.

tonfession, by some one appointed for the purpose, while all the rest of the Sages sal in the atiit tide of devout listeners*. This was the ancient practice, but it lias been superseded by a some- what different ritual since the nine hundred and eightieth year of the era of Mahavirat. At that time, at Anandapura, now called Badnagar, lived Kin-- DhruvasenaJ. He had a dearly beloved son named Senagaja, who by divine decree died that year at the commencement of the Paryiishana. The kin-- was overwhelmed with grief) and no more came«to the place where the Sages lived to pay his respects; and, according to the saying, "As is the king so are the subjects§," the bankers and merchants, and others, failed in their attendance, and occasioned great detriment to religion. Per- ceiving this, the Religious Director went to the Kin-- Dhruvasena, and said, "0 King, through your indulgence in grief the whole city and all the country around is overwhelmed with sorrow. Re- member, however, (> king, that life is fleeting, and the world insipid. It is not proper for a king like you, instruct, d in the Jain religion, to indulge any

more in grief. We are at present going on with the religious Institute called the Kalpa Sutra, which produces much profit to the hearers by breaking the bonds of action". If your majesty will come to the place of the religious meeting, it is in the course of being read." The king con- sented, and the whole was read before him and his followers at nine sittingst, while at the same time they brought presents to the Sages. Ever after this the custom prevailed of reading the Kalpa Sutra before the people generally ; and therefore, according to former practice, I read it to you. It is an Institute venerated by Sura (gods), Seura (demons), by men and women ; and whosoever three times listens to it, performing also the reli- gious duties that are suitable to the occasion, obtains the highest bliss. The meanings of the Kalpa Sutra are infinite, as numerous as the grains of sand on the brink of all the rivers on the earth, or the drops of water in the sea. How then can one of limited intelligence, like me, explain them ? Nevertheless, incapable as I am, I shall make at

Five days were occupied morning and evening in reading the original and hearing its exposition. Formerly the first day seems to have been a broken day, an evening lesson only being read. Now the time is filled up by reading at the last sitting all the original a second time, without comment,

least the attempt to read the Institute before this propitious assembly.

The five follow ing duties are Lhos e, \\ bich, with- out fail, musl be performed during the reading of the work. The reverencing of the images of

ted saints venerating the Sages the yearly confession — mutual forgiveness of faults — tlu* liiilit kind of austerity (i.e. fasting one whole day, and eating but one meal on the precedingand succeed- ing day)*. Besides these, the following religious nets are incumbent upon the Sravakast. The writing of the Kalpa Sritra, text and comment, which is a special duty, since the hearing alone may become the means of liberation after the third transmigration. They should perform the fasts as far as their ability permits. Everywhere in the city proclamation is to be made by sound of trumpet, forbidding to kill any living creaturej.

  • Thia is called the "^fJfTT^m'TT^" Aaoka'sfamous ediota bo have been Bucb a proclamation committed to writing, and engraved on Btone t<> render them more permanent. Prom this and other plac •> ii appears thai on the Jain laity the fol- lowing five dnl all times incumbent : — Mercy t" all living -. the giving the cherishing of pious

Gifts are also to be made in a proper vessel, such as betel-nut, cocoa-nuts, and so forth ; pious dis- positions are to be cherished ; all worldly plans for the time abandoned ; the images of those divine beings who have overcome the passions are to be worshipped, and the auspicious Assembly of Sages venerated. The body is to be placed in a devotional position for the destruction of works. Continence also is to be preserved ; all show and parade are to be rejected, and money expended according to every one's means, and a religious festival observed. The book of the Kalpa Sutra should then be presented with religious reverence, that is to say, after having brought the book into the house, and the people there having continued watching all night, in the morning, having called the inhabitants of the city, and having cast on them saffron powder, and given them betel-nut, the book is to be put into the hands of a youth mounted on an elephant. The whole multitude are now to accompany it with music and singing, and to place it in the hands of the spiritual guide, for the purpose of being read, while a suitable pre- sent to procure necessaries for the reader is also to be made. He who presents the volume of the Kalpa Sutra with all these ceremonies, and corn- dispositions, worship of the images of the Tirthankars, and veneration and support of the priesthood.

plete iii all its letters, listening also to it when read, obtains emancipation at least after the eighth i ransmigralion*.

The Kalpa Siitra has three subjects :— The his- tory of the first and last Jina; the SthiraVali (list of 3ages); and the Samachari (rules of conduct).

 * The story of N£gaketu, who, in virtue of these ceremonies, revived after being Beemingly dead, is here tol<l before the com. mencemenl of the Sutras ; 1 >n t as i\ adds nothing to the infor- mation previously given, I have ao\ though! it accessary to insert it.


 [deration to the sages who have risen to be worthy of divine honour. Adoration to those who have attained perfection. Adoration to those who regulate our religious services. Adoration to our

Tin' proper name of the las! Tirthankar in Vardhamana, imt both in this wui-k and in common usage tin- above epithet,

meaning (he II' ro, has bo completely usurped the pla« f the

other, thai it would \>r affectation to make the required Hubsti- t ut ion in t be translation.

spiritual instructors. Adoration to the sages in every part of the world*.

Such is the fivefold adoration, the destroyer of all sin, and of all bringers of good fortune, the most fortunate.

The venerable ascetic Mahavira, in the age and time of which we speak, met with five propitious conjunctions under the constellation (Kathuttarai) Uttaraphalguni, which were as follows ; he de- scended from above in Uttaraphalguni, and entered on the foetal state ; in Uttaraphalguni he was removed from one womb to another ; he was born also ; he was shaved likewise, and from being a householder became a houseless wanderer, and, lastly, in Uttaraphalgunit, he obtained that real

 * The original of this Jain Gayatri is as follows : —

1 In explanation of what is • meant by being under a con- stellation, take the following example : —

Charitra Dvitiya, S. P., the second day of the Hindu year of Saka 1768, corresponding to March 29, 1846, was under the constellation Asvini, the first in the series; the next day, March 30, was under Bbarani, the second of the series ; and so on till all the twenty-seven constellations were completed, when the series began anew with the 28th day, or April 25. Each of these constellations is now divided into four parts, called feet,

and Bupreme wisdom and perception, which is infinite in its subjects, incomparable in its kind,

imperturbable, free tV all obscurity, a touchstone

for all other things, and perfect in all its parts. It was under Svati, however, that the lord obtained Nirvan (cessation from action, and freedom from desire).

In this age, and at that time, the adorable ascetic Mahavfra, in the summer season, in the fourth month, in the right demi-lunation, during the increasing moon of Ashddha, and on its sixth day, descended from the all-joyous abode* called Pushpottara, which, like the lotus among flowers, is the chief of all the super-celestial abodes. There having remained twenty oceans of years, and expended the life destined for him in thai place, having finished the actions of that State, and laid aside his eelrstial form, without the smallest interval of time, he descended to this earth in the continent of Janibudvipa, in the country of Bharata Varsha, that Bharata Varsha which lies to the south (of Meru), during the currency of this A-vasarpini (age), after the Happy

 viz , ;i golden, :i >il\ cr. ;i brass, and an Iron fool ; each leas lucky than tin' preceding.

These are the abodes by the Jaina called V a term

used by the Brohmans for ;i celestial car, or any other kind


Happy age (consisting of four hundred billions of oceans of years) had passed, and the Happy age also (of three hundred billions), and the Happy mixed with Misery likewise (of two hundred bil- lions), and the Miserable tinged with Happiness (of one hundred billions of oceans of years) was also spent, except forty-two thousand and seventy -four years, and eight months and a half, after twenty- one Tirthankars had been born, of the tribe of Ikshvdku, and family of Kasyapa, and two in the Harivansa tribe, and family of Gautama. Twenty- three Tirthankars had then passed away, when the adorable ascetic Mahavira'*, the last of the Tirthank- ars, and pointed out as about to obtain this dignity by those who preceded him, took up his abode as a foetus in the womb of the Brahmani Devanandi, of the family of Jalandhara, wife of Kishabha Datta Brdhman, of the family of Kodala, of the city of Kundag&m, at the middle of the night, at a fortu- nate conjunction of the moon and planets, having left his heavenly banquet, quitted his celestial abode, and laid aside his former body. In refer-

The original of these epithets of Mahiivira so often used is TFTflXJT "HT^'T They might perhaps he equally well rendered the Ascetic Lord. The Sanskrit translation is, 7PJ3«ft

ence fco this transaction there arc three kinds oi knowledge the adorable ascetic Mahavfra may be Bupposed tn have had ; that he was to descend, thai he had ; that he was descending, that he had not ; and that lie had descended, that he had.

On that very night en which the adorable tic Mahavfra took the form of an embryo in the womb of Devanandi, of the family of Jalan- dhara, the same Devanandi was lying on her couch, and after sleeping a short time wakened up after seeing the following most excellent, prosperity- foreboding, evil -destroying, wealth-conferring, for- tunate, delight some objects in a dream. The objects were as follows : an elephant, a bull, a lion, the goddess Lakshmi, a garland of flowers, the moon, the sun, a military ensign, a large jar, the lotus lake, the sea (of milk), the celestial residence of the -.a collection of pearls, a smokeless flame of lire'-'. Such were the fourteen most excellent, prosperity- foreboding, evil-destroying, wealth-conferring, for- tunate, delightsomet dreams which Devanandi

t This and similar repel itions, with which the original abounds, I Bhall in future generally omit.

saw. Glad and delighted, and with a heart filled with joy, pleased and placid, while a sensation of pleasure stole through all her soul, like that which affects the kadamba blossoms when moistened by a shower of rain, with all the hairs of her body standing upright in their pores with delight, and keeping the dream firmly fixed in her mind, she got up from her couch. Then without hurry or precipitation, or perturbation of mind, and yet without delay, with the stately gait of a swan, she went to the place where Rishabha Datta Brahman was, and saluting him by wishing him all joy*, sat down at her ease on a large comfortable seat, and then joining her hands, so as to bring the ten nails together, and having placed her joined hands on her forehead, she thus addressed him ; "O beloved of the gods, to-night I was lying, slumbering on my couch, and after sleeping a very short time, I awoke after seeing fourteen remarkable dreams ; they were an elephant, &c. ; beloved of the godst, tell me what good fortune these visions portend." Thereon Rishabha Datta Brahman, having care-

form of salutation.

t This is the famous ancient title, Devanupiya, so common in Asoka's edicts, but which now by the Brahmans is applied to a silly or a crazy person, as if in contempt of the holders of the doctrine of Nirvan.

fully apprehended the matter sin- had laid before him, glad and delighted ; placing the dream rally before bia mind, engaged in deep reflection, taxing all his powers till by an intellect that could look into all times, ami a reason that comprehended all relations, he came to a full comprehension of the meaning of the dream, when he thus addressed Devanandi : "0 beloved of the gods, you have seen a dream foreboding prosperity ; beloved of the g<«\*. a must fortunate dream ; beloved of the gods, ,-i pleasure-giving dream ; a dream the source of felicity. This much is most certain, yes at the end of nine full months and -seven and a-half nights* a child shall be born with well-shaped hands and. feet, perfect in every member of his b< >dy, with every lucky mark, mole, and characteristict,

  • lake as in our fortnight ami se'ennight, we have here time reckoned by nights.

t The commentator -ays thai a Tirthankar has a hundred

and eight marks, hut other lucky persons have some or all of the following thirty-two on the palms of the hauls or soles

of the feet: — A large umbrella, a lotus, a bow, chariot, club, tortou well, (ho mark Svastica, a garland, tank, lion,

 an elephant, the sea, a temple, fish, grain of barley, plough, post, pitcher, k i n lt. leather-dresser, mirror, hull. flag, ih goddess Lakshmi, a string of flowers, a peacock. Red nails, feet, hands, tongue, lips, palate, and eyes, be also tells as

arc unlucky. A man who has the forehead, breast, ami mouth

all large, will be a king. Such are Borne of the elements "i~ the .Iain palmistry and occult Bcienct

proportioned in height, weight, and thickness"", with every limb fully developed, and perfect in beauty, with a form resembling the moon, graceful and pleasing to the eye ; to such an entirely lovely child will you give birth. On leaving the state of childhoodt, he will be perfect in all the inferior branches of knowledge, and after entering on the state of youth, he will soon become able to repeat, defend, and uphold the four Vedas, the Rig Veda, Yajur Veda, Sama Veda, and the Atharvana Veda, and the Itihasa (Legendary History), which is con- sidered a fifth Veda, and the Nighantu (Lexicon), which may be termed a sixth ; the body of divinity with all its members, and know also their hidden meaning. He will be acquainted with the six subsidiary members of the Veda, and the sixth philosophical system (the Sankhya), with the Ma- thematics, the Institute which directs in rites and ceremonies, Grammar, Prosody, Analysis of words, Astronomy, and other Brahmanical Scriptures, es- pecially that relating to the state of an ascetic ; in all of these he will become a proncient|. Thou,

  • So Man a, Unmana, and Pramana, are interpreted by the commentator.

t That is, till the age of eight.

J In this curious passage, giving an account of Brahmanical sacred literature in the fifth century of our era, it is remarkable that the agreement with the present state of that literature is perfect, with the striking discrepancy of omitting allnoticeof the

beloved of the gods, hast indeed Been a dream thai forebodes prosperity." And so Baying he again

Purine. It' the [tahasa be the Purdue, as the commentator Beema to think, and nut the Mahabharat, which, however, is frequently by the Brahmans, as here, called the 6fth Veda, then there was but one Purana at the time, according to Professor Wilson's conjecture, Gram which all the rest, by subtractions and addi- tions, have been manufactured. As the whole passage is an interesting one, I put down the original here, along with the Sanskrit translation ; —

and again gave expression to his sympathetic joy. The Bnihrnani Devanandi, on the other hand, having thus received the interpretation of her dream confidently believed it, and with a heart filled with gladness and delight, again joining her hands, and raising them to her forehead, thus addressed her husband : " So be it, O beloved of the gods, be it as thou hast said. No word of thine shall fail ; all shall be established. My desire shall be accomplished. I embrace the words that have fallen from your lips. O beloved of the gods, I confide in the truth of the joyful announce- ment." Here then the matter rested, but while she was delightfully engaged in inquiring of Risha- bha Datta into the meaning of these fortunate, pleasure-inspiring dreams, at the same time and season Sakra (Sakko), the chief and king of the gods, who holds in his hand the thunderbolt, is the destroyer of cities, the performer of a hundred sacrifices, has a thousand eyes, possesses all the materials for sacrifices, is the destroyer of the Daitya, lord of that half of the world that lies to the south (of Mem), who rides on Airavat, is prince of the Suras, and possessor of three hundred and twenty

thousand celestial abodes, is clothed in pure ethe- rial robes, whose head is encircled with a tiara, on whose cheeks Pall down the circular ear-rings made of new gold, and delighting the beholder, pos- sessed of great wealth, of great splendour, of great strength, of great fame, of great majesty, and enjoying great felicity, whose body slums with its OWli radiance, who has a garland of five kinds of flowers falling down on his breast, rightful Bove- reign of the heavenly mansions, rightful sovereign of otlu-r celestial abodes, rightful president of the divine council, who sits on the fl none called (Sakra) "• the mighty,' who is lord of the i^'ds who inhahit the three hundred and twenty thousand celestial mansions, of the eighty-four thousand equal gods, of the thirty-three superior, and those whom they receive into their company of the guardian divini- ties of the four worlds*, of the eight principal queenst, with their domestics, of the three councils, of the seven branches of the army} of the ^"^^- who proted the lives of the eighty-four thousand divinities, and multitudes of gods and goddesses besides, to whom I Bay belongs the sovereignty,

  • Musicians, actors, horses, elephants, chariots, Foot-sold and baggage-bnllocl - the Comment. Tin's is different From the Brahmanical description of an army; but this, and many other curious points, must be left to the reflections of the reader acquainted with Brahmanical literature.

priority, chieftainship, presidency, and -absolute command of all this vast army, directing and pro- tecting all; while then he was enjoying vocal music, the dance and the song, the sound of the pipe, the violin, the cymbal, the timbrel, the tambourine, and the loud-sounding drum, partaking of divine delight, he with a knowledge next to infinite" 55 ' cast his eyes with an all-embracing view down on the continent of Jambudvipa, permitting them to roam all abroad till they lighted on the place where the adorable ascetic Mahavira had just become incar- nate, in the continent of Jambudvipa, in the region of Bharata Varsha; that part of Bharata which lies to the south (of Meru), in the city of Kundagrama, the Brahmanical division, in the womb of the Brahmani Devanandi, of the tribe of Jalandhara, the wife of the Brahman Bishabha Datta, of the tribe of Kodala. On beholding this, glad and delighted, and with a heart full of joy, elated and filled with pleasure, in a state of the most enchanting ecstacy, and with his whole soul absorbed in a transport of delight, and like the sweet-smelling kadamba blossoms after a shower of rain, having all the hairs of his body erect, like so many flowery fila- ments, blossoming in their pores, and with face and eyes resembling a full-blown lotus, the beautiful bracelets and carved armlets, which he wore shak-

ing on him, his tiara, his long ear-rings, and the garland which adorned his breast, and nil the jewels with which he was ornamented thrown into commotion, he descends in haste from his throne, steps down from the footstool, and advancing several paces, [ndra, lord of the celestials, clad in his robes of honour, and adorned with all his jewels, loosed from his feet the shoes ornamented with dark shining lapis-lazuli stones, and other jewels, set in them by a divine artist, and throwing his seamless robe* over his left shoulder, and join- bis hands so as to bring the nails together, he advanced i till seven or eight steps in the direction of the Tirthankar, when kneeling so as to keep his left knee up, while his right was on the ground, lie 1 his head three times to tin; earth, keeping it each time for a short period in the posture 01 adoration, and afterwards raising his arms with the hands bo united as to bring the nails together, and thus carrying them up to his forehead, lie spoke a- follows : "Adoration to the venerablet, worshipfulj performer of all previous works§, who

procures the means of salvation"", the self-in- structedt, the best of men, the lion among men|, the chief lotus among men§, the leading elephant among men, the best of mortals, the leader of mortals, like a lamp hung up among mortals, the irradiator of mortals, the bestower of perfect secu- rity, who bestows intellectual vision, the establisher of the way of life, the giver of easy access, the giver of life, the great teacher, the establisher of religion, the giver of religious instruction, the lord of religion, the charioteer of religion, the emperor of those who have entered on the four religious states, the saviour of a continent, the asylum of those who apply to him, the receiver of those who seek indestructible wisdom, who is free from all fraud and violence, the conqueror of himself, and teaching others to conquer themselves, the saviour of himself, and the saviour of others, himself per- fect in wisdom, and imparting wisdom to others, the emancipator of himself, and the emancipator of others, possessed of omniscience, seeing all existent beings, free from pain and instability, from disease and decay, and not liable to injuries, possessed of

infinitude, and who does not return again to (lie world, who is named the obtainer of perfection, and has highest place of dignity.

mi to the victor, who lias in his breast the nee of victory, I adore the worshipful, vener- hdvira, who has performed all the prelimi- virtuous a> I is the last of the Tirthan-

. pointed out by all the former Tirthankars, and who has at last obtained the Biipreme i of desire. 1 pr< myself before the all- v

able, who now seems to me hither, and

O Lord, both here and there, I adore thee."' So Baying, be returned and took his Beat on his throne. After a little while, refltv within him. ell' on the subject before him, the fol- lowing thoughts occurred to the mind of Sakra* prince and king of the gods; I uch a thing

as this has never happened in past, happens not in will happen in future time, that an lakravarti, a Baladeva, or a Vasudeva Id be born in a low caste family, a servile family, a degraded family, a poor family, a mean family, a beggar's family, or a Brahman's family ; but, on the contrary, in .ill time pai mt, and

 * In Magadhi 8akko, the

The word La mm same i ." used as a na

to come, an Arhat*, a Chakravartit, a Vasudevaj, receives birth in a noble family, an honorable family, a royal family, a Kshatriya family, as in * the family of Ikshvaku, or the Harivansha family, or some such of pure descent. Now truly there threatens to take place a wonder which has never happened, nor does happen, nor will happen in the world throughout the course of infinite Utsarpinis§, and Avasarpinis. His first origin, the act of giving him a family name, must be such as to consort with an undecaying, indescribable, inde- structible renown. I say, then, that the birth of an Arhat, a Chakravarti, a Baladeva, or a Vasudeva has not taKen place, nor does, nor will take place in a low caste, servile, contemptible, poor, beggarly, miserly, or Brahman family, such a thing neither was, is, nor shall be, and yet the venerable ascetic Mahavira has just now descended to the continent of Jambudvipa, the country of Bharata, to the Brahman division of the town of Kundagrama, and

The highest class of sages among the Jains, are worthy of divine honours.

In Mdgadhi, Chakkavatti, an emperor, a king who has other kings under him.

The Jains make Krishna and others belong to the class of demigods styled Vasudevas ; Bala Rama they make a Baladeva, a still inferior kind of demigod. § Immense cycle of ages. See Preface.

mceived in the womb of Devannndi, the wife of Elishabha Datta ; wherefore he is dow about doing a thing that never happened, ndr does, Qor will happen, during the presidency of any [ndra, prince and king of the gods, thai an Arhat should be born in a low caste, or Brahman family, and do! on the contrary in a noble family. The

thing then that can be done is to withdraw tlie venerable ascetic Mahavira, last of the- Tir- tliankars, and pointed out by his predecessors, from the womb of Devanandi, and place him in that of Trisald, the Kshatrayin, of the family of Vasishta, wife of Siddhartha, the Kshatriya, of the family of Kasyapa, both of pure Kshatriya descent . After these thoughts had passed through his mind, called Ilarinegamesi, the chief of his messen-

and thus addressed him : "0 beloved of the gods, a thing now threatens to take place, which never happened lief ire, hor now happens, nor evei will happen, that the birth of an Arhat should

It is difficult bo >;iv what could have Induced the author t..

invent this ridiculous story (unless it were to venl liis s])itr

I the Brahmans),so like t he Puranic legend of I lalarama's

In tliis fable ELarinegamesi acts the part that

trahmans assign to Ybganidra. The commentator antici-

tory, and brings forward the Brahman-

ipport the credil of the author.

take place in a low caste, or Brahmanical family. Therefore go you, O beloved of the gods, to the worshipful ascetic Mahavira, who is now con- ceived in the womb of Devanandi, in the Brahman division of the city of Kundagrama, and withdraw him from thence, and place him in the womb of Trisala, the wife of Siddhartha, and return quickly, and report your diligence in this affair." Haii- negamesi"*, chief of the heavenly messengers, hav- ing received the commands of Sakra, king and chief of the gods, delighted, and with a heart filled with joy, bringing his hands together (in token of obedience), immediately addressed himself to the execution of the orders which he had received from the mouth of the god. Having accordingly gone to the north-east quarter, he, at the commencement of his journey, changed his appearance, exhibiting himself in the form of a pillar of innumerable leagues in length, combining the lustre of the diamond, the ruby, the emerald, the opal, the pulakat, Sugandha, Jyotivanta,Anjana, Anjanapula, Jyotiresa, Subhaga, Anka, rock crystal, amethyst, and other brilliant gems, and of the consistency of muslin. After thus proceeding a certain space, he

The Sanskrit given here is Harinaigamaishi. I suppose the name means "swifter than a cleer."

I give here the Sanskrit names of those gems of which I cannot ascertain any thing certain.

again changed his appearance, and assuming an atomic body, he darted with a motion graceful, rapid, willing, exultant, fleet, elegant, in a word, entirely perfect and divine, through seas and con- tinents till he arrived at Jambudrfpa, at the house of Rishabha Datta. On entering, he at once Baw the worshipful, ascetic Mahavira, and prostrated himself before him. Then having cast Devanandi, with all her attendants and family, into a deep p* having removed all impure matter, he took out what was pure, and without injuring or paining the adorable ascetic Mahavira, he placed him sur- rounded with a divine lustre, in the palm of one hand, and covering him with the other, carried him off to the Kshatriya division of Kundagrama, to the house of the Kshatriya Siddhartha, where was his wife Trisala ; having then cast her and hei attendants into a deep sleep, without injury or p;i in, he introduced the adorable ascetic Mahavira in the

wombofthe Kshatrayin. When he had performed this service, he returned with a graceful, divine motion through seas and continents, thousands of lies, till he reached the abodes of the bl<

and entered the heaven of the religioust, where

 * This by the Jains is called Asvapani Nidra, and it is the tin' three kind- of sleep whieh they reckon op, patting one in mind of :i m

f ( . larmavantaraloka Viman "


is the throne of Sakra, the .chief and king of the gods, and reported to his lord that he had per- formed what he was commanded to do. In refer- ence to this transaction, the adorable ascetic may be supposed to have had three kinds of knowledge, but in reality he knew that he was to be with- drawn, and that he was withdrawn, but he did not know when he was in the act of being withdrawn.


In tin 1 same night that the adorable ascetic Ma- havira waa removed to the womb of Tris'ala, she \v;ts lying in her splendid mansion, ornamented inside with numerous paintings, and outside with smooth white stucco, having a ceiling adorned underneath with various colours, and with clusters of darkness-dispelling pearls, and a floor perfectly smooth, and. marked with lucky figures, in which were bouquets of fresh and sweet-smelling flowers of all the five different colours, along with black aloe wood, and the finest frankincense and am- bergris, burning and sending up curling scented names, inspiring delight, and making the house emit an odour like a grove of frankincense trees ; in such a splendid mansion, on a couch large enough to allow the body to be stretched at lull Length, with pillows at head and foot, and raised at the sides, while flat in the middle, with a foot- stool to mount it, soft as the sand on the banks of the Ganges, with sheets of the finest materials,

thrown over if", with a handkerchief lying on it of the richest colours, covered with mosquito curtains, in a word, altogether delightsome, soft to the touch as fur, silk, cotton, or butter, and scented with sandal -wood, and other sweet-smelling woods, altogether a couch to be coveted, there, while lying, and having fallen asleep but a short time, about the middle of the night, she saw the same fourteen propitious dreams that the Brahmani Devanandi saw, after which she wakened up. The objects seen by her in her dreams were, first, an elephant with four tusks, looking like radiant drops of dew, or a heap of pearls, or the sea of milk, possessing a radiance like the moon, huge as the silvery mountain Vaitadhyat, while from his tem- ples oozed out the sweet liquid that attracts the swarms of bees. Such was the incomparably stately elephant, equal to Airavat himself, which Queen Tris'ala saw, while uttering a fine deep sound, with his trunk filled with water, like the sound of thunder ; hi every respect an incomparable ele- phant.

She next saw a bull shedding a flood of radi- ance, like to that which proceeds from a bunch

hich should be linen or silk ; but the Gujarathi makes the covering of cotton stuff.

f A fabulous mountain, which the Jains suppose first to

receive and then reflect the sun's rays.

of white Lotus flowers, shining and darting out rays on every side. A yery fine ornamental attractive hump adorned his shoulders. His skin was clear. his hair sleek, his form graceful, and his body in good condition, and altogether beautiful to look on ; his horns were circular, smooth, and elevated ; his to i!i were harmless and clean. Such was the "f excellent qualities the bull possessed.

She next s;iw a lion of ;i dazzling white colour, like a bunch of pearls, or the sea of milk, or the lunar radiance, or the drops of dew, whiter than the great mountain Vaitadhya, pleasing and delightful to the sight, si rong, muscular, and fat, with his mem- bers all properly rounded in the most elegant w&] . having a sharp well-formed jaw, a mouth beautiful as tlu' periphery of a lotus, a fine muscular lip, with a palate like the red water lily, and the tip of his tongue hanging out of his mouth like fine gold being poured out arucible, while his bright eye

seemed like a hall of lightning falling upon you. His chest was broad, and his large well-made shoulders were adorned with a soft, bright, (inc. sleek, Long-haired mane, while his tail was raised

aloft with a circle in the (•litre'-", bounding like a

lull, and po y the good qualities as well as

form «»f the moon. Ho seemed bounding play-

 This is t!ic form intended *^"^ >


fully along, and descending from heaven with open mouth, as if he were coming directly down upon you ; a lion with sharp strong claws, yet pleasing to the sight, and with a tongue hanging out of his mouth, beautiful as the petal of a lotus.

The fourth dream seen by her whose face was like the full moon, was a vision of the goddess Lakshmi, sitting on her lofty lotus throne. Her form was altogether excellent ; one foot was firmly planted on the ground, and seemed like a pillar of o'old. It was elevated in the centre like the back of a tortoise, while the nails partly hid by the muscles of the toes, were stained with a brilliant red dye. Her fingers and toes were soft and tapering like the leaves of a lotus ; her well-formed legs were adorned with circular ornaments ; her knee-bones were hid in the muscles, and her thighs tapering upward like the trunk of an elephant. Encircling her loins was an elegant zone of gold, whi]e the circle of the navel resembled a cloud of black bees, being continuous, fine, ever-moving, soft, downy, large, and elegant. The other three circles which are in the middle of the palms of the hands, were also elegantly formed. Her whole body was adorned with various kinds of jewels, wholly fault- less, and highly brilliant. In particular, she had a pearl necklace, intermingling with garlands of sweet-scented flowers. A circular pendant fell down between her breasts, and adorned her chest,


on which it rested. She had also around her neck a string of grains and golden dinars*. Two large ear-rings hung down from her oars, and illumined the shoulders with which they came in contact. Everything about her was beautiful ; her face had a noble aspect; her eyes were large and lovely, like lotus (lowers; she hold a water lily, still dripping with water, in her hand, and she was

fanned by an agreeable wind, which set in motion her tine black braided hair. Such was the goddess the queen saw residing in her lotus house, called Padmadraha, on the top of Mount Himavat, and by win mi stood the guardian elephant of that quarter of the heavens, bathing her with water from his trunk.

The fifth dream was a vision of a garland of flowers altogether delightsome, and worthy a place in the heaven of delights. It was composed of the following flowerschampaka, asoka, punnaga, pri- yangu, sarisava, magarat, malatit, jd.tit, juhit, kolla, koshta, and bakula, intermingled with amaranth

 * The original word is here retained ^j^fPC The custom of stringing coins together, and adorning with then children especially, is Btill very common in India.

t 'It '1 varieties of Jasmine. The scientific i

of tl. irs will generally !><• found in Wii


leaves, and southern-wood, besides jasmine of other rare varieties ; and sesame flowers, and other flowers of spring, with red, blue, and white water lilies, with beautiful sweet-smelling mango blossoms — producing altogether an unequalled, delightsome, sweet-smelling garland of flowers, imparting pleasure to the inhabitants of the ten regions of the world, shining and waving, and pleasing the eye, and of every variety of colour, while a swarm of six-footed* honey-bees were seen buzzing and flying around it as it descended from heaven.

The queen next saw the moon white as the froth of milk, the drops of dewt, or a silver spire, rejoicing the heart, delighting the eyes, a perfect circle, destroying thick conglomerated, impene- trable darkness, a full moon, at the exact point between the two halves of the month, bringing out the radiance of the wild lotus flowers, adorn- ing night, sliming like a polished mirror, and brilliant as the white swan, sharpening the arrows

 * The Jains are fond of four-tusked elephants and six- footed bees, and other such preter-natnral animals.

t <5 4{ <^ <4 literally water-pearls, both Sanskrit and Gujaratlri

give ^pSTcfrmT' The Sanskrit from which the Magadhi is

changed may be \3s^"eJ\^5i| as well as \3"*T3r^7i5r


I 'upid, and raising the oceanic tides*, no1 to be Looked on by disconsolate wives temporarily sepa- rated from their husbands, lest they suffer a greater calamity ; a moon altogether lovely, like the mark on the forehead, the pride of all the circling starry host, especially beloved of Etohini in soul and heart. Such was the glorious lovely full moon which Trisala saw.

■ next in her dream saw the sun, rending the curtain of night, all glorious "with his encircling

radiance, like a hunch of red asoka or p.ilasa flowers, like a bill of a parrot, or the red side of the retti seed, adorning the beds of wild lotuses, occupying his proper station in the beginning of the ecliptic, like a lamp hung down from heaven, destroying the influence of cold; the prince of planets, the conqueror of night, who at his rising and setting comes near us, but afterwards removes far from us. who disperses the evil doers that

stroll about in the dark, who stops the influence of the cold winds, who circles round Mem the

 * The original here is *nT?"<£J|lH J| The Sanskrit trans-

lution is TT?7 j^"3p*r3 »*i [ cj ,£ cf» I mention this in case of any

doubting whether the author knew the true cause of tl of the tides, especially as I donol recoiled anywhere, thai the Hindus m


prince of mountains, the mighty Surya, darting forth his thousand rays, the glory of the Aditya.

Next she saw a standard, with its golden staff firmly fixed, and its flag, consisting of a pro- fusion of blue, red, yellow, and white cloth, raised and spread out to the wind, while the extremity was adorned with a bunch of peacock's feathers. It was brilliant as crystal, a pure conch, the flowers of jasmine, the drops of dew, or a silver jar. Its head was in the shape of a lion's, exceedingly splendid, while it pierced the sky with its extremity. It was lucky to behold, and had its soft flag moved backward and forward by a gentle wind, and, though vast in size, yet of a form attractive to the beholder.

She next saw ajar shining like burnished gold, full of the purest and best water, brilliant and ornamental, and placed upon a lotus made of pearls, delighting the eyes, and shedding a brilliant lustre, which diffused itself on all sides ; a habita- tion of the mild Lakshmi herself, wholly free of defect, fortunate, and resplendent, a very type of prosperity, having the beautiful and sweet-smell- ing flowers of all seasons arranged in it like a necklace : altogether, a perfect and brilliant flower- pot.

She next saw the Lotus Lake, irradiated by the first beams of the rising sun, which tinged its waters with an orange hue, producing innu-

 LIFE OF MAil.W m;a. !'.»

merable thousand-leaved water lilies, filled with aquatic animals, and exhibiting shoals of happy

fishes, sporting ami shining" as it' the water were Oil fire. There sprung up lotuses of the solar radiance and of the lunar radiance, the blue lotus, the rose- coloured, and the pale, all growing together in one Inartificial, splendid, delightful assemblage. Large black ltees, and Bwarms of gadflies, were luxuriat- ing among the leaves. Black swans, and white swans, cranes, geese, and Indian cranes, in all their pride, males and females, were fluttering Over the water, while the lot its Leaves, besprinkled with drops of dew, reflected every variety* of colour, a Bight wholly pleasing to the eve : a piece of water inspiring the highest delight.

She next saw the sea of milk shining like the moon, when she shines with her utmost bril- liance, propitious as the divine curl", the fluid rushing together from the four quarters of the heavens, the lofty waves incapable of measure- mentt, utterly devoid of stability, agitated by the tempestuous winds"; in one place rushing against each ether, while in another they dash against the shore, sending forth a brilliant spray, inspiring the

 * Srivatea, considered lucky among Jains and Brahmana

f So I ] •■ ^TTTJT'^IT^'T ! a fine idea, "that can

be compared only to the] •



soul with delight. Enormous whales, crocodiles, and sea-serpents""", darting through the fluid, form rivers of foam, white as camphor ; and again diving into the depths, occasion a whirlpool, like that of the Ganges when she bursts through her mountain barriers. Such was the mighty effervescence of waters seen by the queen, whose countenance was radiant as the moon.

After this she saw a celestial mansiont, re- splendent and shining with a radiance like that of the newly-risen sun, or a large heap of pearls, with a hundred and eight pillars, each shedding a flood of light from the gold and jewels with which they were adorned. It seemed a lamp let down from heaven, or some radiant celestial garland. Upon it were painted lionsj, oxen, horses, men, alligators, fishes, serpents, heavenly choristers, celestial roebucks, and eight-legged deer§, Tibetan cows, elephants, and many other animals. It was ornamented also with the finest flowers, and great

 * Timingala, Nirudha, Tilira.

t The original is Viniana, but the Jains use this word for a mansion, and not for a car.

% TJ7T fur TJTT! the Commentator has strangely ^nifT*

the Guj. is ^'faTW

§ ^^ The Jains consider these to have eight legs.

 LIFE OF maii.w ii;a. ;") I

variety of Lotuses. The heavenly band of singers sent forth a Bound, articulate and harmonious, yei so loud thai the thunder which issues from some immense lightning-charged watery cloud could not equal it : while the celestial bass drum sends forth a Bound qo! inferior to thai which all the men and animals in the world could raise. The linest aloe-wood, and License, and ignited ambergris, send up a fragrant smoke, which, rising in curling wreaths, delimits by its sweet perfumes, eve)- con- tinuing radiant and bright, and diffusing abroad streams of delight; a mansion in every respect desirable for the gods. Such was the splendid lotus habitation seen by the queen.

The next thing seen was a heap of jewels. It contained diamonds, adamants* sapphires, chal- cedonies, rubies, emeralds, corals, rock crystals, fragrant stones, swan-egg stones, black jewels, moon stones, and other precious stones, piled to- gether in an immense heap, and illuminating heaven with their radiance, a heap of jewels high even as Mem, prince of mountains.

Last of all she saw the smokeless lire, large, bright, and of an orange colour, fed by fresh

  • These are respectively U^tt mid ^fTZ" Some of the following arc mere translations of names' without imparting any knowledge of what Btonea tbey refer to, ri thing I am unable

t>> do.

E 2


melted butter, blazing away without producing any smoke. The flame was most pleasant to the sight, rising and falling alternately, a mass of fire com- ing out of itself and again returning into itself; a swift ever-flitting fire, with a flame rising aloft, extending itself on all sides, seeming as if it were about to bake the firmament".

 ^fa^ gr^j^rr that is ^TcTrTmr^rc*ro

 LIFE OF .MAHAYll; \. 53

 Chapter III.


Sucb were the prosperity-foreboding dreams which when the lotus-eyed queen, mother of the Tir- thankar, bad seen, she wakened up ; and, fixing the dreams firmly in her memory, and descending from her couch hy means of the footstool, wenl bo the place where the Kshasi riya Siddhartha was Lying in his bed asleep. There serenading him with her gentle and sweet voice, in these words: — "Thou art most noble, most amiable, most beloved, most worthy of being thought on and delighted in. most mighty, prosperous, gentle, wealthy, bounteous, fortunate, and worthy of all the affection of the heart, the disperser of hostile armies*," — she

 * In the original these are all epithets of f*]^if% thai is, 'Mm'; '" ' ;iIn informed thai the meaning is ;i> given, and such an enumeration of the qualities of ;i greal man bj .... officer who goes before, is still a necessary part of Hindu ceremonial on public occasions.


awaked him out of his sleep. Thereon King Siddhartha graciously receiving her, commanded her to sit down on an elegant easy seat, adorned with gold and jewels ; whence she, after being seated, thus in sweet accents addressed him : — ■ " O my lord, while I was this evening sleeping in my splendidly furnished apartments, I saw the following objects in a dream, viz., an elephant, a bull, &c. Tell me then, my lord, what good for- tune and future happiness these fuurteen dreams forebode." King Siddhartha, glad and delighted, after fully grasping with his mind, and reflecting again and again on the dreams, while he sum- moned up all his powers of intellect and reason, having comprehended their meaning, thus ex- plained it to Tris'ala : — " beloved of the gods, thou hast seen a prospering, propitious, blessed dream, a dream that portends good fortune, and happiness that forebodes the birth of a royal son. In nine months and seven and a half days, thou wilt give birth to a heaven-descended son, who will become an ensign to our family, the lamp of our family, the family crown, the family frontal ornament""", the enricher of the family, the stay of the family, the sun of the family, the glory of the

 * Tilaka, a lucky ornamental round mark Hindus make with a paste on their forehead.

 LIFE OF maii \\ ii;a. 55

family, the family foundation, and the family ex- alter. His hands and feel will be perfect In beauty, his five senses perfect, and all his qualities, pro- perties, and marks-', complete, of proper height, weight, and proportions, ami all the Limbs properly developed, and agreeable to the sight as the moon. Such shall In.- thy son ; and when he passes from the Btate of childhood to thai of youth, he will be perfect in all the common branches of knowledge, and as a youth will be brave, heroicj powerful, well built, capable of leading armies; in a word, a king <»t* kings. Thou hast soon, therefore, a most pro pitious dream;"— and this he repeated two or three times.

When then Trisala had heard the interpreta- tion of the dream from Kiag Siddhartha, laying it up in her heart, and bringing her joined hands to her forehead, she thus spoke: — "I accept of the interpretation you have given as wholly free from error and doubt, and as altogether excellent and according to my wishes." So saying, Bhe rose from her seat, and departed; hut, on reflection, Bhe -.lid in her own mind. " Now, i musl take care that no wicked dream follow, to destroy the virtue of this on,'. Dreams concerning the gods,

 * Thai i-. moles and marks on the body, which are considered

,:r;i! i 1 11 1 n irl ;u ;■


religious teachers, and things good, lucky, chari- table and desirable, require that a person should afterwards continue watching." She thus accord- ingly acted.

In the morning, at the first dawning of the day, Siddhartha called some of the royal messengers 4 ', and spoke to them as follows : — " beloved of the gods, go now quickly without the palace, and pre- pare the hall of audiencet, for holding a court to- day. Let the place be sprinkled with scented water, and the floor newly smeared!, let the hall be adorned with sweet-smellino; flowers of the five different colours, let the best aloe-wood and am- bergris and incense, send up in curling wreaths their sweet delight-inspiring perfumes. After the whole has been properly perfumed, let my throne be set down in the midst of it : and when you, by yourselve3 and others 5 have performed all these my commands, come back quickly and so report to

 * Mag. c£Y^fir?mf^ Sans. cfft^f^TTW^

t ^^sF^T^WTtjf a temporary building, or one of slight materials, large and spacious, such as the Hindus now construct, or deck out, on great occasions, a pavilion.

% That is, with cow-dung, as the Hindus do constantly to earthen floors, which, when dried and swept, are far from offensive, even to a European.

 LIFE OF MA11.W ii;a. 57

nit'.' Tile 1 1 iess< ■liters having thus received the commands of King Siddh&rtha, and laid up his words in their joyful hearts, joining their hands, said, "We haw with all humility heard your com- mands, O our lord, and will yield implicit obe- dience." Immediately they departed, and going to the hall of audience without the palace, prepared it as the king had ordered, and returning, so reported to his Majesty. Siddhartha arose, and by the help of his footstool descended from his couch, while it was yet the season of blooming early morn, and the brilliant aurora-like beds of full-blown flowers and lotuses appear in all their beauty, diffusing a radiance resembling red asoka flowers, rottleria blossoms, or the red phoenisia ; and soon the rising sun, like the crimson side of the retti seed, the eyes and feet of the wild pigeon, or the scarlet-coloured eye-balls of the India cuckoo, emulating a bouquet of red China roses, deep as the colour of red lead, or that of a bunch of red lotuses, with liis thousand rays, introducing day. and dis- pelling night and all its gloom, shines forth, and, like the red mark that adorns the forehead of children and women, irradiates the world of living creatures. Having got up, he went into the gymnasium", where there was a profusion of instru-


ments for exercising the body, and weights for stretching the arms. There, after exercising him- self till he was tired and tired again, he took various kinds of oris, some with a hundred and others with a thousand drugs and medicaments dissolved in them, sweet-smelling, nourishing, irradiating, exhilarating, fattening, strengthening, and quickening all the senses ; he anointed him- self all over with these ; he was then well rubbed and shampoed by men skilled in the art, and who could impart a softness and tenderness even to the palms of the hands and soles of the feet, who could perform their work with quickness and dex- terity, the first and cleverest of their profession, and who had studied well the art, and were in- capable of fatigue, kneading the body till the bones were invigorated, the muscles refreshed, the skin relaxed, and the hair made to shine, all the four tissues of the body refreshed, and all langour and fatigue banished. He then left the gymnasium, and went into the bathing room'". The room was hung round with strings of pearls, and various kinds of jewels, the floor of the smoothest stucco- work ; a delightful bathing place it was. Sid- dhartha sat down upon the jewelled easy bathing seat, and then performed his ablutions, so con-



dttcive to health and comfort, with tepid water,

scented with flowers and sweet perfumes, pure water from a holy place. At the end of this ope- ration, attended with so lnueli pleasure, he dried himself with a towel made of soft, valuable, and finely coloured cloth. After this, he put on his robes, made of the most expensive materials, and fringed with jewels, entirely new, and adorned with wreaths of flowers, sprinkled with saffron, and Bcented with sandal-wood. He then threw around his neck, so as to fall down on his breast, a oecklace, in which pearls and jewels and gold medals were intermingled with one another, con- sisting of eighteen, nine, or three strings, as the case might be. He next fitted his jewelled collar close to his neck"", put the rings on his ringers, and the armlet s ;md bracelets on his muscular arms, while the long circular ear-rings hung down and adorned his cheeks, and a tiara his head. Thus arrayed, with the necklace adorning his breast, jewelled rings of the best gold his fingers, with an ele"\Mit scarf falling down on the left side, and with what is called the hero's ornamenl on his arm, made of the finest gold, and set with the most ex-

 * These arc two completely different pieces of drees; the former hangs loose like a garland, the latter Gte close like ;> collar.


pensive jewels by the most skilful workmen, shin- ing, glittering incomparable, in a word, like the tree that yields all that is desired, covered with ornaments, with a state umbrella held over his head, resembling a canopy of amaranth blossoms, and fanned with a chowrie, while the people raised an auspicious shout of triumph, attended by the commanders of the troops, and heads of depart- ments, the vice-regent""', the heads of the policet, chief of the royal messengers^, counsellors, infe- rior and superior, astrologers, warders, cabinet ministers, slaves, and personal attendants, citizens, with the lawyers and bankers, commanders of the forces, commanders of the chariots, couriers, and sealers§, issued forth the king and lord of men,

 * This is the Yuva raja, called in the text simply TJT^T"

f In India usually called the Kotwal ; perhaps under the native governments, a commander of the city-guard would give a truer notion of his dignity.

J The Kodambia again; the Sanscrit is ^fZ'^^Tm'T! the word cR"^"J5f is not in the Dictionary, and it occurs too fre- quently to be erroneously written. Their dignity seems to have been much higher than that of the TTrl mentioned afterwards.

§ ^f^T^T^T whose duty it was, according to the king's commaud, to affix the royal signet to public documents. Such an officer, I believe, exists at the East India House.

 LIFE OF MA1I.W 1KA. lil

the bull and lioD among men, lovely to behold* as the moon after emerging from a large white cloud, shining among the surrounding stars and planets,

and came outside to the place where the hall of audience was, and sat down upon his throne, which was place 1 BO as to face the east. In the north- east quarter were placed eight seats of honour, covered with cloth, white as the flowers of the white mustard plant. Beyond these again, at a respectful distance, there was drawn a curtain fringed with jewels, and of the finest city manu- facture, embroidered with images of stags, bulls, horses, men, crocodiles, birds, serpents, heavenly choristers, eightr-legged deer, Tibetan cows, and elephants, with forest flowers and water lilies, forming a perfect screen from the multitude. Within this was set a throne, covered with the purest white cloth, and fringed with gold and jewels, f"r Queen Trisald, soft and easy to sit on. Having then called the royal messengers, King Siddhartha thus addressed them : — "O beloved of

the gods, gO quickly and call a sage skilled in the

[nstitute of the eight kinds of prognosticst, Learned

  • This i< the famous epithet ftTtEJ'^'^JUT that occurs so Frequently in the ancient inscriptions, ami which we have here nut u ith Beveral t imes I" Pore.

f According to the Annotator, the eight kinds of prognostics are. those derived from the body, dreams, Bounds, the earth,


in all the Sastras, and especially skilled in the interpretation of dreams." Having received the royal commands with reverence, the messengers, pleased and delighted, and having raised their hands to their foreheads in token of obedience, took their departure, and went into the middle of the city of Kundagrama, where lived the skilful interpreters of dreams.

 moles and marks, congenital qualities and marks, meteoric por- tents, and heavenly portents. An example given is, that the twitching of the right eye, or the throbhing in the right side, is lucky to a man, and in the left to a woman, and the contrary. In the play of the Toy Cart it is singular that Arya's right arm throbbed when he escaped from danger, and Vasantsena's right eye twinkled when she fell into danger. Twitching in the throat he tells us portends finding a wife, in the legs fetters, in the head a kingdom, &c. The falling of a star betokens dis- tress to subjects, and the occurrence of a hurricane causes disasters to kings. Laughing in a dream portends grief, and dancing bonds ; with the exception of a cow, horse, elephant, or image everything black seen in a dream is unlucky, and everything white lucky, except cotton and wool. Such are some specimens of this precious Sastra.

 LIFE OF M aii.w ii; \. f,:;

 ( Ihafteb I V.


I >\ entering the houses of the interpreters of dreams, the royal messengers delivered to them the King's message. On being thus summoned by the messengers of the noble Siddhartha, glad and delighted in heart, they first bathed, and per- formed the worship of the gods'", then, to prevent any prodigy or misfortune, put the lucky mark on their foreheads (Tilaka), put on clean, fortunate, courtly garments, good, light, and valuable ; adorned their persons with jewels, and put on their heads the sesame seed and kusa grass, the insurers of good fortune. Thereon they left their houses, and went to the place, in the middle of Kundagrama, where King Siddhartha's palace was \ there they stopped at the principal gate, distinguished by a crest in the shape of a crown, and having waited till all were collected, they

 * Tins is omitted in one copy; btri these men were probably by religion Br&hmans.


went together to the splendid hall of audience, where King Siddhartha was, and made obeisance to him, wishing him a continuance of prosperity and victory*". The King returned their salutations with all manner of respect, and ordered them to be seated on the aforementioned eight seats. Having also made Tris'ala sit down with her maids of honour in the place prepared for her, with a sweet-smelling flower in his hand, in pleasing and gentle accents, he thus addressed the interpreters of dreams : — " O beloved of the gods, the noble Tris'ala, to-night, after having slept a short time, saw, in her own splendid apartments, the following fourteen dreams : An elephant, a bull [as before]. Tell me what particular good fortune, and special felicity, these dreams portend." Thereupon the interpreters of dreams, with glad and joyous hearts, having heard the request of the noble Siddhartha, took the subject into consideration, reflected upon it, conversed on it with one another, and asked one another questions, till they had made out satisfactorily its hidden meaning ; when in the presence of King Siddhartha, one of them,

  • "5TTT""<Tfic"'IT"2IW^"""$[T3fc"" Instead of this simple form of blessing, the Commentator gives the following : " May you be happy, safe, rich, long-lived, have a numerous offspring, and always victorious, and may the Jain religion be always in your family." Also he gives another, which concludes thus : " May you live for ever, — live as long as the world lasts."

 UFE OF MAll.W IKA. 65

citing tin- texts from the Institute of Dreams, spoke as follows: — "O beloved of the gods, we bave diligently searched fche Institute of Dreams, ami find that there are forty-two common dreams, and thirty extraordinary dreams, in all seventy two. And it is further said, that the mother of an A (highest order of Jain saint), 01 Cha- kravarti (emperor), sees fourteen of the thirty extraordinary dreams at the period of Buch child's conception. It is further stated that the mother oi a Vasudeva, on such an occasion, sees seven, and then awakes : and the mother of a Baladeva, four ; while the mother of a Mandalika Raja (de- pendent king), sees one. Since, then, O beloved of the gods, the noble Trisala has seen the whole of the fourteen propitious dreams; this portends the obtaining of wealth, the obtaining of felicity, the obtaining of a son, the obtaining of joy, the obtaining of sovereignty, and all this, O beloved of the gods, without any sort of doubt. Accord- ingly, after nine months and seven and a half the uoble Trisala' will bring forth a son, who sli.'dl be a royal standard to his family, .... o.s- in the last chapter], an emperor of the four regions of the world, a conqueror of the passions, and also emperor of the four virtues*. Such,

  • These virtues are Dana, Sfla, Tapa, and Bhava ; or alms- giving, the exercise of compassion, the practice of fasting and



beloved of the gods, is the purport of the propi- tious dreams the noble Trisala saw."

When King Siddhartha had heard these things from the interpreters of dreams, laying them up in his joyful and delighted heart, and bringing together and raising his hands to them in token of respect, he thus spoke : — " beloved of the gods, be it even so as you have said — let all you have predicted happen without fail. The interpretation you have given is just such as one could desire, equal to their highest aspirations, and, I have no' doubt, in accordance with perfect veracity." Hav- ing: then loaded them with sweetmeats, sweet- smelling garlands, garments, ornaments, and such gifts as were due to them, King Siddhartha, with the highest reverence and honour, dismissed the interpreters of dreams.""

 other austerities, the entire subjugation of the mind. In the works of the Buddhists the chief virtues are reckoned three, the third of these beiug omitted. This is a different thing, however,, from the three principles of Buddhism.

  • The Annotator here takes occasion to introduce a story, so good in itself, and so like one told of a debate that happened in the presence of King James, between a canny Scot and a Spanish doctor, that 1 here give a literal translation of it. There lived in the city of Paithan a learned man, who after expending thirty years in the study of the sciences became so puffed up with pride, that he stuck into his head-dress an elephant's hook as a flag of defiance, bound a belt round his stomach lesl b<


At'tci- he had done this, he weni to the place within the curtain, where Queen Trisald sat, and

 should bars! from the knowledge he contained, had ;t servant carrying a Ladder, to bring down from heaven the vanquished disputant, who might there try to conceal hifl defeat, had with him also a to dig onl the disputant who should skulk

away to II . and a bundle of grass for the man to eat after his discomfiture, who should venture to throw at him the garland of defiance. Thus accoutred he travelled through theDeccan, Gujarath, and Marwar, vanquishing all who entered the with him. Be went even as tar as the 1 tanks of the Sarasvati, where hearing of the fame of Bhoja's Court he determined to proceed to Ougein. Bang Bhoja treated him with all respect, ami called an assembly of all his five hundred learned men, Kali das, Kridachandra, Bhavabhuti, and the rest, to dispute with him. They were entirely defeated by the Southern Pandit. day King Bhoja, greatly chagrined, went out t<> take exercise, and on his way he saw a certain oilman, called Ganga, blind of an eye, throwing the oil-seed into the oil-press. "What a wise man must tins be," said he to himself, " if the saying be true, 'that a dwarf and a man with yellow eyes have sixty tricks, a man born without a leg of an arm has a hundred, but the number that he has who is blind of an eye no one can tell.' " Going up thereft re to tin' oilman, the Kin-- asked him, if he would try his skill in disputing with the Learned foreigner. The oilman replied, "What can I do, or what reputation for learning have I ry may through haphazard decide in my

favour; L will make tin- experiment." On Sunday next, the King having called the Southern Pandit said to him, ••< ) Bhatta Ad.nrya, you have vanquished .all my Learned men. it is true, but you have not yet come in oontact with their instructor: I vrish yon to-daj to enter the Lists with him." " Verj well." the



spoke to her as follows : — " O beloved of the gods, it is declared in the Institute of Dreams, that there

 other replied. Seats were then set for all the wise men of Bhoja's Court, one for the Bhatta Acharya, and a special seat reserved for Ganga, the oilman. After the whole assembly of learned men and courtiers were met, the King ordered Ganga, who had been dressed in the most splendid style, to be introduced. On his entering the King rose up to receive him, and the whole of his Pandits and courtiers followed his example ; and now the debate, at the King's order, commenced. The Southern Pandit, on observing Ganga narrowly, said to himself, "This is a fat stout fellow, whereas I am spare and feeble, — possibly he may over- power me by sheer noise and wordy declamation; let me therefore keep to first principles." Accordingly he began by holding up one finger — Bhoja Raja's new Pandit held up two. After re- flecting a little, the Southern Pandit stretched out his arm with his five fingers expanded. — Bhoja Raja's Pandit immediately stretched out his arm with his fist clenched. Instantly the Southern Bhatta Acharya came down from his seat, and fell at Ganga's feet, took out the elephant's hook from his turban, loosed the band which was around his loins, burned his bunch of grass, broke his ladder, knocked the head off the pickaxe, and prepared to return defeated to his own country. " What is all this," said the King, "will you explain it to us?" "0," said the Southern Pandit, " this Pandit of yours is a learned man indeed, a perfect sage ; I held up one finger, intimating that there is one Siva (Spirit), he held up two, signifying that Siva was nothing without Sakti (Matter). Next I held out my five fingers, to intimate that there are five senses ; he clenched his fist, as much as to say, these five senses must be restrained." Thus crest-fallen he left the assembly. When he was gone, the Kinsc asked the oilman what sense he attached to the dumb

 LIFE <>F \i.\iia\ n;.\. 69

are Forty common dreams," &c. [just as the Brah- man before had said]. After this announcement had been made to her, the noble Tris'ald unhesi-

agrj received what had been declared to her, and, having ]»;ii<l the King <lu<> reverence with joined hands, toot her departure, and went to her own apartments.

Prom the daj thai the venerable ascetic Malm- took up hia abode in the royaJ family, Kuvera, with all tin* Imsts of earth's inhabiting gods, called Trimbaka, under his command, had orders from Sakra to search every place where treasure was likely to be, and, when they had found any, to carry it to the house of Siddhartha ; namely, to search out treasures of which the owners or guar- dians were dead, and the families to which they be- longed had b< me ext inct . or of which the owners

or '4-11.-1r1li.1i1s and families to which they belonged had emigrated, and been Ion from the

 debate carried on between him and the Southern Pandit. "0,"

said Ganga, "he fire! held tip one finger, twitting me with having

only one eye; I held np two, as ranch . You have two

now, but take care thai I do not knock oul one of them; i\c

then - out hia hand, as 1 understood it. threatening to

me a slap <ni tl I then in a rage clenched my fist,

bidding I [ did not knock out his teeth."

Tin' King and his courtiers, after enjoying o hearty langh,

m \i ith many pr< sents


country, whether the treasure were in villages, or cities, or hamlets, clumps of cottages, or sheds, camps, market-towns, hermitages, threshing-floors, islands, places where three roads meet in a point, or where three or four roads cross each other, stands for carriages, spaces before temples, king's high- ways, waste villages, waste cities, common sewers of villages or cities, in the streets of towns, in temples, in court-houses, in places for drawing water, in pleasure-gardens, parks, forests of one kind, and forests of different kinds of trees, plan- tations, clumps of trees on mountains, places on mountains for propitiating demons, ruined houses, and every other place where treasure is to be found. Accordingly, from the day that the venerable ascetic Mahavira entered the family of King Siddhartha, the royal treasures and ornaments of gold greatly increased, coin and grain increased in the country, the inhabitants increased, the strength of the army increased, the infantry, elephants, and chariots, the number of his treasuries and store-rooms, the members of the royal household, the citizens and men of distinction, all increased. In fine, golden ornaments, jewels, pearls, sacred conchs, crystals, corals, rubies, and other precious stones, all in- creased a hundredfold. The parents of Mahavira, considering that they had now obtained the boon they had so long wished for, and so long prayed for, determined that, in consideration of the great


increase that had taken place in ever) species of wealth, he should be called The [ncreaser (Var- dham&ua*).

 * This then ia the proper name of the lasi Jain Tirthaukar, though Mali.ivira (the Hero) has almost entirely supplanted it, in popular usage, like the AJricanus and Germanicus of the


 Chapter V.


Some time after this the mother of the adorable ascetic MahaVira was greatly distressed, at finding that since the time of his conception he had never moved, but continued perfectly still, gathering together all his members, " This babe," said she, "must be dead or torpid, or dissolving, that it continues thus motionless ;" and cherishing such reflections, she sat down with her cheek leaning on her hand, looking to the ground, and utterly dis- consolate. On learning the state of the Queen, a stop was put to singing, playing on the tabour, violin, and tambourine, and to dancing, in the palace of Siddhartha, and all the courtiers went about idle with downcast countenances. Thereon the adorable ascetic Mahavira having, by an act of intelligence, brought before him what was passing iii his mother's mind, moved a little to one side, when Trisala again resumed her wonted cheerful- ness, and all gloom was dissipated. On account of this incident Mahavira resolved, that in this


Institute IIO one should he permitted to lie shaved,

leave his bouse, and abandon his family, as long as bis father and mother were alive.

The ooble TrisaM having bathed, and made her offerings to the inferior divinities*, partook daily of articles of food, which were neither cold, nor hot, pungent, bitter, nor astringent, neither sour nor sweet, oily, harsh, unripe, nor parched, eating always what was proper for the season of the year, and not only in food, bnt also in clothing, scents, and ointments, Btudying to use such things as should prevent disease, grief, and longings, while at the same time she was on her guard against frights and fatigues. In such circumstances a mother should be careful to use a healthy diet, Buited to the country and season. She should sleep on a firm and easy couch, in pleasant apart- ments, suited to exhilarate the mind, have a place where she can' take exercise, and, as a general rule,

 * We have here in al] the copies 3r5Jsjf%3P?fT performed the I >:i 1 i worship; and as this was done by the mother of a Tirthankar, it i> perplexing n> th J dns, who condemn

this worship. The Brahmans, too, discourage these ceremonies ; but among Hindus, Jains, and Buddhists, no rites are more care- fully practised than these, which all their pri »tho ids condemn, Bhewing thai they musl b< Long to an aboriginal form of worship, which prevailed am people before the introducl

those new religions from the North.


her longings should be gratified. Thus spending her time happily, in sitting, standing, sleeping, reclining, and taking exercise, the period of her confinement arrived, and the child was born. It was in the summer season, in the first month, in the second demi-lunation, during the bright half of the moon of Chaitra, on the thirteenth day, after a gestation of nine months and seven and a half days, that the venerable ascetic Mahavira was born, a faultless child, when the planets were at their greatest elongation, and when they were in a fortunate conjunction witli the moon"", while all the regions were in a state of placidity, whi ] e there was no darkness, but all luminous, without any louring redness, and nightingalest singing

 * This fortunate conjunction of the moon with the planets, so often mentioned, is as follows : —

vsi wa t?*- ^wrafr^Y: irtfrfwrfH

That is to say, the fortunate conjunction is, when Mars and the Moon meet in the 6th, 7th, or 9th Lunar Asterism. As to what is said above about the planets being all in their places of greatest elongation, it is probably a mere rhetorical flourish, the planets, according to the Hindu astronomers, having never been in that position since the commencement of the Kali Yuga, B.C. 3102, and the Author had no intention, as will afterwards appear, of throwing back the birth of Mahavira to that remote era.

t The Syama (Tardus macrourus). The original is ^"^f^TH


songs of triumph, and the purifying wind moving titly along, and circling around the place where lay the Lord and bis mother. The joyous multi- tude were engaged in celebrating the vernal fes- tival*, and even the earth seemed to share in the delight. It was at midnight, under the constella- tion of Uttara Phalguni, at a lucky conjunction of the moon and planets, that the event took plare. On the ni'dit in which the adorable ascetic was born, many gods and goddesses continued going

and coming to and from this world with a divine splendour, manifesting, by laughter and other signs, the intensity of their joy. On the night in which the adorable ascetic Mahavira was born many divinities, dwellers in the world under the command of Kuvera, rained down showers of pre- cious ores, gold, diamonds, garments, jewels, sweet - Bmelling Leaves, of flowers, fruits, -rods, garlands, ambergris, sandal- w >od, and strings of pearls. The four classes of 'j:-^--, those who dwell in subter- ranean places, tl ose of the aerial regions, those of the starry firmament, and those from the highesl

heavens, all flocked to the abode of the noble

 * In the 1 leccan there ia the Maruti Jayanti held at this time, l»ut the great vernal festival is celebrated a month earlier. These festivals are n<>t Brahmnnical, bnl belong to the ancient ritual ol ilie Hindus.


Siddhartha, to hold the high festival of the inau- guration of the Tirthankar*

Early in the morning, the King having called his messengers-at-arms, said to them : "0 beloved of the gods, go quickly through the city of Kun- dagrama, and liberate all the prisoners!, and order all the dealers to increase their weights and mea- sures for the day. Take care also that all the city, both inside and outside, and the gates, be sprinkled with water, and smeared with cow-dungj, that places of resort, where three or four ways meet, and spaces around temples, be similarly purified, as also the highways and lanes ; also erect a large pavilion, adorned with parti-coloured cloth, hung around with flags, attaching festoons to the ceilings, and put finger-marks on§ it of the finest white and red Cashmerian sandal- wood, and put down on the floor a jar of sandal-wood, and round it a number of smaller pots. Hang up also gar- lands over all the doors of sweet-smelling fresh flowers, of all the five different colours, gracefully

 * This is the Ablhsheka ; none but gods were present on the occasion, or took part in the festival.

t The original phrase for this is, ^TT^^^^SJ^RTW that is,

^TTTTTTTT^^^^fT as explained ^(^TW^rf

J A common practice now on festive occasions. § This is also a common practice.


Btrung together, and with the garlands Galling down in the form of a necklace. Take then black aloe-wood, and other kinds of sweet-smelling incense, and light them, so as to produce wreaths of delightful perfumes, filling the whole place with sweet odours. Order dancers, and pole danoers, wrestlers, boxers, jesters, story tellers, reciters of poetry, ballad singers, players on cymbals, on tambourines, and on wind and stringed instru- ments, along with these who toss up pules, and double balls, all to be present, and aid in the re joicings." Saving received the King's commands, the royal messengers"*, glad and rejoicing, and making suitable obeisance, went through the city executing the King's orders, and then returned to

1 that they had fulfilled all his commands. This morning King Siddhartha went to the gym- nasium, exercised himself, bathed, and dressed

bove narrated. Then, arrayed in his royal

robes, accompanied by his guards, and players on all kinds of musical instruments, he stepped into his palanquin of state, and ordered proclamations to be mad, as he went through the city, by sound of conchs, drums, tabours, cymbals, and tambou- . that there Bhould be a release of all presents

 * These are the Kadambiya we before met with, and who at the oommenoemenl of tliis paragraph are in the original mi n- fcioned l>y words thai mean ae translated M< ssengers-at-Anns.


of cloth, and of all customs, of taxes on cattle, and husbandry, and other taxes, that no arrests should be made, that small fines should be remitted, and larger reduced one-half, and debts cancelled, and that dances, plays, and all kinds of music should be provided for the people, and the city gave itself to joy and festivity for ten days. During these ten days of festivity Siddhartha received hundreds and thousands, and tens of thousands of gifts, and gave and ordered to be distributed among his servants, hundreds, and thousands, and tens of thousands of donations. The first day there was performed the feast of special rejoicing for the birth of a son*, the third day was the shewing him the moon, and the sunt ; on the sixth day was observed the reli- gious wake! ; the eleventh day put an end to the

 * In Sanskrit called f%ff?TE7?t^T

f The Commentator says, that instead of shewing the child the actual sun and moon, they form a golden or brass image of the former, and a silver one of the latter, and shew it these.

J The mother and her attendants keep awake all this night from respect, my informants say, to the Goddess Sati, or as the Marathas call her, Satvai, who comes to write the child's fate in its forehead. The lines formed for the blood-vessels inside the skull, and especially the serrated lines of the junction of the frontal and parietal bones', are supposed by the Hindus to be the work of a deity, and to contain a record of a man's fate. Accordingly, in the Deccan, for "fated," theyuse the expression, " written on the forehead."

 1.1 1'l: OF MA II A VI 11 A. 70

tmcleanness incident to the mother on the birth of a son ; ami accordingly, on the twelfth day, all kinds of articles for eating and drinking, along with sweetmeats and digestives, were prepared for friends, relatives, fathers and mothers-in-law de pendants, and multitudes <>f tin- Kshatriya caste, who were invited to the feast. Trisala, therefore, having bathed, and worshipped the inferior gods, and performed those ceremonies required t<> pre vent misfortune ; clothed the child in pure, auspi- cious, fine, light, valuable raiment, and adorned ii with jewels : Bhe then gave it rice to eat, and pui it into an easy eradle. After whieli, the ahove- mentioned parties sat down to enjoy the feast pre- pared for them. Ailer dinner was finished, ami the mouth ablution was performed, ami the place made perfectly clean, — the guests were adorned with flowers, ami garlands, and scented robes, and jewels, when the noble Siddhartha tints addressed them : "0 beloved of the gods, shortly after the

time ..f my child's conception, on account of the increase that took place in my treasures, and every thin 1 '- relating to the kingdom, I resolved, that as

BOOH as the ehild Was bom, he should he ended

Vardhamana (The [ncreaser) the desire of my heart having horn accomplished, I now impose upon him thai name. He also is called Sramana, Bhagavan, Mahavira (The Aseetic, Adorahle, Hero). The name Sramana is given because he is devoid


of fear and terror, and insensible to all the ills of life, both natural and incidental, possessed of a mind calm and patient under injuries, imbued with true wisdom, and insensible to pain or pleasure. He is called Mahavira because he conquers the passions, and thus shews himself possessed of true heroism ; and he is named Bhagavan because he is worthy of divine honours." The father of the Ascetic Lord had also three names, Siddhartha, Sriyansa, Yasasvi ; and his mother also, who was called Tris'ala, Videhadinna, Pritikarani. His eldest paternal uncle was named Suparsva, and his eldest brother Nandivarddhana, and his sister Sudarsani. His wife was named Yasoda. He had a daughter who had two names, Seshavati and Yusovati.


 ( Jhapteb VI.


The venerable ascetic Mahavira was Learned and intent on the acquisition of knowledge, perfecl in

his form, and free from all defects, benevolent and affable in disposition, of distinguished rank, the son of a man distinguished in rank, and himself like the moon (among the stars) in his illustrious family; his body was perfectly symmetrical, the ,>«>n of ;i symmetrica] mother, and the most sym- metrica] of his family*. Thirty years he lived as a householder, hut after the departure to the abode of the gods <>f his father and mother, he deter- mined to carry out his purpose, and obtained the consenl of bis brother, who had now become king. At that time, also, the gods who attend on Jina

saluted him. and announced to him that the period for becoming an ascetic had arrived, in these words: "Victory, victory to thee' Chief of the

 * 1" play on the word Videbi here used.


Kshatriyas, lay to heart our words ; Lord, ruler of the people, promote the world's happiness, be- come the sanctuary of religion"'*, and in the whole world, to every living creature become the author of prosperity, felicity, and future bliss." On finishing, they made the sound of victory to re- sound through the atmosphere. While the vene- rable ascetic Mahavira was yet living in the society of men, and following the religious practice of a householder, he had obtained incomparable, all- manifesting, indestructible intelligence and per- ceptiont. Therefore, by this incomparable, all- manifesting intelligence and perception, clearly seeing that the time of his initiation had arrived, he abandoned in fixed resolve all his silver, aban- doned all his gold, his wealth, kingdom, country, army, chariots, treasury, store-houses, city, private apartments, and society ; and taking his money, golden ornaments, jewels, precious stones, pearls, conchs, corals, rubies, and other precious stones, he distributed them in charity, and divided them among his relations. All this happened in the winter season, the first month, the first half of the

 * VflrTT^I in allusion probably to (f^cfi""^'

t WtTT ^TTft ^TOf%3Tt ^ TW^WTT^T This

was not yet, however, the highest grade, as will afterwards appear.


month, that is to say. after the full inoon of Mar- gashirsha, the tenth day, when the shadow was turned to the east, and but one watch of the day remained, on the day called Obeisance (Sannati), and the hour (Muhiirta) called Victory (Vijaye- aam). Then in the palanquin of state, called Lunar Radiance (Chandra Prabha), he proceeded, accom- panied l>y gods, men. and Titans, bearing, sonic conchs, some quoits, and some golden plough- shares : some acted the part of heralds, some rai ! the weak to see the show, some personated bards*, some sounded gongs, and all, in melodious accents, spoke as follows: — "Victory, victory, and prospe- rity] Victory, victory to thee! O Lord, possi of indestructible intelligence and perception, con- queror of the unconquered passions, protector of ;ir Eleligiont! O thou, who hast for ever overcome every obstacle, O divine sage, who art now united bo perfection, hind the two giants.

 * Here we have first the ^TirTfTTp«nT probably tbe ofli win) precede greal men to proclaim their titles, as is still the to; next we have eT3T'jfri(TT which, in the 8 trans-

lation is ^^VT^TlMriM^cn '. and which in the Gujarathi is ■ be men lifted <>n the shoulders ofoth< rs; next we have %"fl*JWT translated UTqrrpTT : or ?mTVT: bards.

t TT^nryqj the Jain sil'iV religion


Anger and Malice, by thy austerities, and, like a hero, girding up thy loins, overcome the eight enemies whose power lies in works, and performing the purest and chief kind of meditation, devoid of passion, like a warrior seize the flag of victory erected in the battle-field of the three worlds, and obtain a knowledge cloudless, incomparable, per- fect and supreme, rise to emancipation, the highest state of bliss", by that most excellent of roads pointed out by the Jinas, a road free from all per- plexing deviousness, and slay all the foes that oppose thy progress. Victory ! victory to the Chief of the Kshatriyas, for many days, many fort- nights, many months, many seasons, many holy years, many years ; having vanquished all natural evils, and accidental diseases, may he obtain per- fect patience and equanimity, subduing fear and grief, and performing without obstruction every required religious act." So saying, they again made the air resound with the shout of " Victory ! victory !" Thereon the adorable ascetic Mahavira, gazed on by a circle of thousands of eyes, praised by a circle of thousands of mouths, venerated by a circle of a thousand of hearts, surrounded by a circle

 * It is worthy of notice here that the highest state of bliss VT^R W% is said to b° *?*§T (Moksha), shewing that the Jains consider Nirvana and Moksha the same.


 LIFE OF MAiiAvn: \ B5

of thousands whose hearts were won to religion by his oonduct, pointed out with admiratioD by the right hand fore-fingers of a circle of thousands of men and women, with a circle of thousands ofjoined hands raised in reverence, with a circle of thousands of friends and relations taking leave of him, and with the sound of violins, drums, cymbals, tam- bourines, and other instruments of music, and a chorus of voices, shouting "Victory, victory!" accom- panied also with all his wealth, all his glory, all his troops, all his chariots, all his attendants, all his oificence, all his ornaments, all his grandeur, all his wealth, all his subjects, all his dancers, all his musicians, all the members of the female apart- ments, in the midst of all these attendants, and while all those musical instruments were sounding,

li ■ proceeded through the midst of Kunda- r, to the garden called the Prince's Park, where the Asoka (Free from Sorrow) tree grew ; under it he alighted from his palanquin of state, • ripped himself of all his garlands, jewels, and ornaments ; he then pel-formed the fast of abstin- ence from six meals without drinking water*, and having torn out live locks of' his hair, he then.

 * The Jains bake two meals daily like <>: her Hindus , tl then, is a fast continued through two 'wl and during tho

afternoon of the preceding and forenoon of the tmccecdin


under the constellation Uttara Phalguna, at a fortunate conjunction of the moon, assumed the garment of the gods*, and all alone, without a companion, and having been shaved, from a house- holder he became a houseless pilgrim. The ador- able ascetic hero for one year and a month wore clothing, afterwards he went robelesst, and had no vessel but his hand. The adorable ascetic Maha- vira, for twelve years and full six months, entirely neglected his body, and laid aside all care of his person, and with whatever things he was brought in contact, whether gods, men, or other animals, whether pleasing or displeasing, he conducted himself with perfect patience and equanimity, and felt nothing dispirited by the wretchedness of his condition. The adorable ascetic Mahavira was

 * The Commentator says this was a robe given him by Indra ; perhaps it was the small piece of cloth the Hindus never take off, called a Limguti, but it is clear that the Jains do not under- stand properly what it means, or do not wish to explain it. It might have meant be became a Digambara, had this not been opposed to what follows.

f Achelae. The Commentator introduces a ridiculous story about a Brahman begging his garment, and Mahavira's giving it him, as the cause of his being naked ; he forgets also that he had explained Achelaka to mean with little clothing, instead of having none, so contrary to nature is this practice of the two chief Tirthankars, intended no doubt to shew their entire superiority to all passion.

 LIFE OF M All AVI i; \ 87

iM»\v houseless, a wanderer, a s\ taker of the truth, eating only whal had no fault, having no v< either to receive presents, or to make oblations, (to tin.' gods or manes)*, regardless of the rales prescribed about natural evacuations, phlegm, and Hi-' scurf of tin-' skin, indifferent about gratifica- tion from his mind, his speech, or his body, re- straining the mind, the speech, and the body, sensual appetite, anger, courtesy, affection, and desire; altogether free from pride, perturbation, sin, and selfishness, having no gold, plate, nor c<>iii : and as water does not enter the substance of tin- brazen vessel that is dipped into it, nor sound into that of the conch which emits it, so his soul was not subject to the accidents of mortality, but like the firmament, raised above the world, un- restrained like air and fire, and pure as the

rers in spring. He was perfect in beauty like the lotus Leaves, like the tortoise he had restrained ;ill his corporeal organs, he was single and alum-, like the horn of the rhinoceros, like a bird not easily caught, like the eagle, never oil' his guard,

og as an elephant, pal Lent as a bullock under his

 • The original i.s ^ I ^ I U] *T3Ht1 f^WW^f^T?;

the lasi word in Sanskrit is JJ^tt^IkT a1 "' properly means indifferent, though the force <>f it oomea I ' afterwards once translal


load, like the lion difficult to be restrained, stable as Mount Mandara, deep as the ocean, mild as the moon, and refulgent as the sun. His person re- sembled pure gold, and was of the colour of pure honey or fire ; and yet he was patient as the earth, trodden on by the feet of all the world — he had no attachment or tie binding him to the world. These ties are of four kinds : articles of possession, place, time, affections. The first consists partly of ani- mate, partly of inanimate objects. Place is either villages, cities, forests, fields, threshing-floors, houses, courts, or heavenly mansions. Times are instants (avali), moments (anu), breathings (prana), thavas (stoka), kohanas, lavas, muhurtas, days, fortnights, months, seasons, half-years, years, and ages'". Affections are anger, humility, deceit, desire, fear, joy, love, hatred, sorrow, slandering, misjudging, anxiety, doting affections, falsehood, false alarms. None of these things affected the Lord Mahavira.

On finishing the rest of the rainy season, the venerable ascetic Mahavira travelled eight months, during hot and cold weather, remaining a night at a village, and five in a city, esteeming the dust of

 * 167 77, 216 moments = 1 prana, 7 breathings = 1 tliava, 6 thavas = 1 muhuxta, 77 lavas = ditto. The muhurta is, as among the Brahmans, the ^ of a day and night.

 I. in OF mah.w n;.\. 89

Ill-flavoured wood and of sandal-wood the same; looking on grass and pearls, gold and a clod of earth, pleasure and pain as all alike, bound neither to this world Qor to the world to come, desiring neither life nor death, wholly superior to worldly attachments, setting himself to slay the enemy, Works. Thus did lie labour for twelve years in the road that leads to absolute repose (Nirvana), to attain perfect wisdom and perception, religious practice, abstraction from the love of home and country, power, Indifference to every object, readi- to obey, patience, freedom from desire, sell- restraint, joy, truth, mercy and perfection in aus- terity. In the second half of the thirteenth year, when half a month had elapsed in the summer on, in the second month of summer, the month Vaisakha. in the fourth demilunation, the tenth day after the full moon, when the shadow was going eastward, and one watch remained on the day called Savita, and the Muhtirta called Vijaya, at the town of Trfmbhikagrama, outside the town, at a river called Etituvalika, at a moderate distance

from a Yaksas temple, called Yairyavartta, in the

field «»f a husbandman named Sama, under a Sala- tree, sitting in a crouching posture as one docs in milking a cow, while inflaming his mind with devo- tion on the heated earth, and after the feal of six meals without the use of water, under the coi lation I t\ ira PhdJguni, :it the time "i a fortunate


lunar conjunction, while he was engaged in abstract meditation, he obtained infinite, incomparable, indestructible, unclouded, universal, perfect, cer- tain, supreme intelligence and perception'"".' Thereupon the adorable ascetic hero having be- come an Arhat (worthy of divine honours), a Jina (a conqueror of the passions), a man of established wisdom, omniscient, all-percipient, he knew and saw all the qualities of the three worlds inhabited by gods, men, and demons, being per- fectly acquainted with all the comings and goings, standings and movements of all living creatures, in all worlds, as well as with their mental cogita- tions, lawful and unlawful enjoymentst, and their open and concealed actions ; being an Araha, (one from whom nothing is concealed), and the undisguised object of worship to all beings. At that time, then, having obtained a perfect know- ledge and perception of all the qualities and con- ditions of all living creatures, in all the world, characterized by mental, vocal, or bodily attri- butes, he continued ever after to enjoy the same.

  • The original here is "^'WTT ^S^tTT ft^T^TTJ

f^TT^T^ 3>fW ^W^T^TW^WT ^*TO% describ- ing an omniscience the most complete, and nothing short of perfect deification.

t A paraphrase of ^Tfftng^f^rf^T

 LIFT 01 \IA1IA\IK\. 91

A I this time bhe adorable ascetic MahaVfra came to the town of A.sthigrama, and spent there the first reel of the rainy season. Proceeding then to Champa and Prishtachampa he there spenl three, at Vaiiijyagrama nearVais&li he spenl twelve, and in the village of Nalinda near Rajagriha fourteen, Bix at Mitliila, two at BhadrLka, one at Aiambhika, one at SraVasti, one at Panitabhumi, ami the last

of tin- rainy season lie spent ;*t Papa, where reigned King ShastipaMa. There having >|>nit the

■ II of rest at the royal court, in the fourth month, in the seventh demilunation, on the night immediately preceding the new moon, was the time of the adorable ascetic hero completed, his earthly career 6 I, the hands of decay and

death loosed, and he entered on a state of perfect bliss, wisdom, liberty, freedom from care and

ion, and .-ihsence of all pain*. This took place in the second year named Chandra, in the month Pritivardhana, in the demilunation Nandivardhana, in the dav named Agnivesha^ and siirnannd I pa-

 * These attributes of the state of Nirvan are surely incon-

' with annihilation; pR - ^ W~g W t\ -*A d *\~?

qf^f»T"5^"5 *f5^<r?3uf%TJT the tit'tli translated "freedom

from passion; wSane. JT^WrrrTTW^TrT ^ ,1 "' " ,lr ,llHt N irvan properlj.


sama, in the night named Devananda, and sur- named Nirati, at the Lava named Archa, the Muhiirta called Prana, the Stoka named Siddhi, the Karana called Naga, at the astrological period named Sarvartha-siddhi, in the constellation Svati, at the time of its conjunction with the moon. At that time many gods and goddesses were seen in heavenly splendour, ascending and descending through the aerial regions, and manifesting them- selves by the whispering sounds they uttered. On the night on which the adorable ascetic hero was delivered from all pain, Gotama Indrabhuti, the chief of his perfectly initiated disciples, had the bonds of affection by which he was tied to his preceptor cut asunder, and attained infinite, certain, and supreme intelligence and perception. On the same night the Navamallika and Nava- lechhiki, kings who reigned at Kasi and Kosala, after performing the fast of the new moon, and sitting awhile motionless, said, " Since the light of intelligence is gone, let us make an illumination of material substances." On the same night the planet Kshudra Bhasmaka""", destined to continue two thousand years, ascending the natal constellation

 * Mag. Khnddae Ahasarasi. Sans. Kriirasvabhavabhasma rasi. The test is the Gujarathi paraphrase, and probably refers to the appearance at the time of a comet, called here 3J1J


of tin- Lord Mahavira, and as Long as it continues there, there will be a great waning of piety and religious worship, among male and female ascetics and religious persons, but when the planet descends from that constellation, ascetism and piety will blaze forth with new brilliance. On the same night an animal called the Irryprehensible, was pro- duced, and continued fixed in one place, producing in ascetics a want of distinct vision. On seeing this many male and female ascetics performed the fast of abstinence from food and water.

(The disciple inquires) Why was the animal produced, my Lord? It was to shew that the observance of the religious institute would now be difficult.

At the time and season mentioned the adorable

tic Mahavira had, with Gotama Indrabhtiti at

their head, an excellent select hand of fourteeo

thousand male ties; and with Chandrabald at

their head, an excellent select hand of thirty-six

thousand female ascetics ; with Sankhasataka at their head an excellent select band of one h mdred and fifty-nine thousand male lay adherents ; and with -revatiat their head, an excellent e

hand of three hundred and eighteen thousand female lay adhei ; dorable ascetic hero

had three hundred and fourteen advanced disci- ples, possessed of a wisdom next to perfect, and knowing theoretically all that a Jina knows, with-


out being perfect Jinas*, and of these fourteen were superior to the rest. He had a band of thirteen hundred disciples, possessed of inductive knowledge, seven hundred possessed of certain knowledge, seven hundred possessed of the power of assuming a different form, and though not gods had the power of gods ; five hundred of large intellect, acquainted with all the thoughts and feelings of all sentient beings, in two and a half continents and two seast; a company of. four hundred disputants that had never been overcome in any assembly of gods, asurs, or men. He had seven hundred male disciples, who on dying ob- tained perfect liberation, and fourteen female. He had two hundred and fifty who obtained that super-celestial mansion, from which beings only once descend to mortal birth before obtaining liberation. The venerable ascetic hero instituted two peculiar world- vanquishing periods, one unli- mited except by the Yuga, and the other embrac- ing a limited time. The former extended to three disciples in succession, and the latter continued

  • The original is ^f^fT^T^T f^HSF^NrTO M «N I T=R>

w%nTW in Sanskrit ^tf^rrfa f^ra-fin: w^t- wWTrnr:

t Namely in Jambudvipa, Dhatuki Kkanda and Urdlia Pushkar, and the salt and fresh -water sea, all our earth.


only tour years . The venerable ascetic Maha- \ - 1 1 -; i Lived thirty years as a householder, and then twelve years and sis months and a lull half month more a sage only in outward guisetj thirty 3 1 ux and a holy month in the exercise of perfed wisdom, altogether having lived seventy-two years. At that time the Pour rlarans of this Avasarpini,

Vedani, Avu, Nama, and Gotra, were finished, and the fourth Ara, called Dukhamasukhama, had all expired except three years, and eight and a half months, in the city of Papa (Mag. Pawa), alone without a companion, performing the fast in which abstinence is kepi up for three In II days and nights, without even tasting water, under the con- stellation Svati, at a fortunate conjunction of the

':. in the morning, the lord sat down upon his lot us scat, while the public reading of the fifty-fifth

a, which speaks of the fruits of righteousness and of Bin, was going on. At that time repeating without a prompter the sixty-sixth, called the chief btained emancipation, and entered od a state of freedom from passion, and absence of pain. After nine hundred years from bis depar inre had elapsed, and in the eightieth year of the

 * These refer to peculiar spiritual privileges 1 by

certain disciples for this period.

+ Chhadmastha, thai is, an ascetic, doI \> : ed of

•' knowledge


currency of the tenth hundred, this book was written, and was publicly read in the currency of the ninety-third year*.

 * It is added in the Gujarathi, at the time of a famine in the city of Mathura. The era is that of Mahavira, preceding the Samvat of Vikrama, according to the Jains of Gujarath, by 470 years, consequently for the time before the Christian era by adding 56, we get 526, and for the date of the book a.d. 454, and the public reading a.d. 466. The era given as that of Mahavira in Prinsep's Useful Tables, Indian Chronology, p. 33, is 42 years earlier, corresponding to the time here given for Mahavira's becoming an ascetic. See Preface, where reasons are given for preferring Mr. Prinsep's date. The date here given is one founded on the mistake of the abandonment of the world for death.


 Chapter VII.


PabsvAj the chief of Arhats, was son of King Asvasena, and of his queen Vania, and waa born at Varanaai (Benares), in the second month of winter, the tenth day of Pausha. JIc adopted .•in ascetic life with three hundred others, when he was thirty years of age, and for eighty days he practised austerities, before arriving at perfect wis- dom. He lived after this seventy years, Less eighty days, his whole term of life being our hun- dred years, after which he obtained liberation from passion, and freedom from pain. He wore one garment, and had under his direction a large

 * These histories are given with a greai deal <>f prolixity, generally in fchevery words in which Mahavira's b'fe is detailed. I have there fo re confined myself to the few particulars in which they really differ, and in ihis I have but carried oul a little further the plan of the original; For after a few details, ~s\J^ is usually added t * » denote thai the other particulars arc to be taken from tho previous bist<



number of male and female ascetics, and lay dis- ciples. His death took place twelve hundred and thirty years before the composition of this work (i.e. B.C. 828). He died while with thirty others performing a fast on the top of Mount Sameta (Sikhar). He is also called Parsvanatha.

The Arhat Nemi was son of King Samudravi- jaya and his queen Siva, and was born in the city of Sori (Agra). He was born in Sravan the first month of the rainy season, under the constellation Chitra. He became an ascetic at the age of three hundred at Dvaraka {Mag. Baravavae). He died on Mount Girnar, after living seven hundred years as an ascetic, in all a thousand years. He was only fifty-five days an imperfect ascetic. This book was composed eighty-four thousand nine hundred and fifty years after his death"". He is also called Arishta Nemi, and Neminatha.

Bishabha, the Arhat of Kosala, was the son of Nabhi, and his queen Marudevi. He was born on the eighth day of the waning moon of Chaitra ; his mother dreamt of his birth as in the case of other Tirthankars, but saw the bull (Vrishabha) first, and instead of calling a Brahman to interpret particularly her dreams, Nabhi performed that

 * Whatever may be said of the date of Mahavira's life, the author now undoubtedly runs wild. His dates are purely ima- ginary henceforward, and some are not found in all the copies.


office himself. Rishabha *waa the first king, the first mendicant, the firsi Jina, and the first Tir- thankar. He spent two hundred thousand years, in the State of youth, reigned six huiulivd and thirty thousand; tor one thousand years he remained an ascetic Imperfectly enlightened ; in all he lived eight hundred and forty thousand years*.

 * In some copies there are similar eztravaganl histories of nil the Tirthankars, but not in the best manuscripts. I am inclined to think that the original work ended with the life <>t" Mahavira. The Annotator in his Preface speaks only of the times of Maha- vim. and Rishabha; and even the latter would seem added by a modern hand, nnless it be that unrestrained by traditions trans- mitted to posterity, of the age and actions of the first Tirthankar, the anthor indulged his fancy in a way that he durst not do with the more recent Bage. The few particulars wc have of the other Tirthankars are most likely mere fictions, founded <>n no Bolid traditions. The only three historical characters 1 conceive to be, Rishabha, who practised austerities in very ancient t inn b, which the Jains in after ages imitated; Parsvanath, the real founder of the Sect, and Mahavira, who carried its principles out to their utmost limits.

 11 2




Name. Family. Death after Mahavira.

1 Sudhamia Vaisya 20 years.

2 Jamba Kasyapa 64 „

3 Prabhava Katyayana ... 75 „

4 Sishvambhava Vatsya 98 „

5 Yasobhadra Tungiyayana . 146 „

, (Sambhutivijaya ... Madara 156 ,,

CBhadrabahu Prachina

7 Sthulabhadra Gautama 170 „

CSuhasti Vasishta

^Mahagiri Elavarchasa . . . 215 ,,

CSusthita Kotika

(Supritibhadra Vyaghrapadya

1 Indradinna Kausika

1 1 Diima Gautama

1 2 Sinhagiri Kausika

1 3 Jiitlsvara Kausika

14 Vajrasena Kausika







Elach of win mi was the

Pad mi la.

founder of a Sakha, or


branch called by his


own name.

 The BuccessioD from the second Teacher <<f No. 8, the other list being the succession from the first of the same number. (The dads heing contained only in the MS. which gives this succession, were n<>t appended to the succeed- ing numbers above, but are here resumed) : —

 9 Balisaha 241

10 Santi 280

I l Sornacharya... 232

12 Skandila 378

Jinadhara ... 454

Samudrasvami 508

Mangu Svami 59 1

N;idila Svami 68 I

diasti ... 719


1 1

L5 L6


 1 9 Sinhasvarni ... 814

20 Silndilasvami 848

21 Hemavanta ... 875

22 Nagaguna ... 887

23 Govind.isvanii 914

24 Pliuiidiniia ... 942

25 Lohitasvarni 975

26 Duppajana ...

27 Ksliaiiiiisvami 993

 l; . at va 790

N.B. — The above list proceeds a generation

lower down than the time of the composition of

vork, but the author might have added the

■ one before his death. We bave now nume- rous lists, according to the different branches of the Beet, continued till near the present time. i >ne of these is here idded :









Samanta Bhadra.


































Laksh misaVara.














Vibudhaprabh a.






Hira — lived in Ak-



bar's time, a.d















































Vij ayamaliendra.




Vij ay asamudra.



1st Samdchdri. At that time and season the adorable ascetic Mah&vfra commanded that, reck- oning from the rull moon of A.shadb a month and twenty days, a period of rest and fasting should be observed yearly in the four months of the rainy 3eason*. When the reason of this was asked, lie replied that it was intended, first to lead the house- holder to whiten and thatch his house, smear and clean the walls inside, repair his fence, level and clean his floors, perfume his house, char the pipes and gutters, that the house might be fitted for the true enjoyments of life; and next that such a

 ' This divides the i on into two periods, one of fifty,

and one < ■: days ; the Svetambara Jains fast, daring the

former, and the Digambara daring the latter of these periods, a - the text is considered ambignoos. The term for this fasl is Paryushana. [te nature will immediately appear, permil I a East, varying from thai in which 1 al one meal daily is taken, to thai in 'a hich al two, three, or more da


season had always been observed by the leaders of the sacred bands of disciples, by the established sages, and by the ascetics of past and present times, and that therefore it was incumbent upon us, and all our teachers and priests, to keep this season of rest and abstinence. The calculation is to be made so as to come within the night of the fifth of the increase of the moon of Bhadrapad, and not to go beyond it,

2. It is commanded that all males and females, keeping the annual fast, should limit their peregri- nations to a circuit of live miles, proceeding beyond that no farther than the time the perspiration takes to dry on the hand.

3. Should a deep constantly-flowing river intervene, within that circuit, they are not per- mitted to cross it, for the purpose of collecting alms, but where there is a river like Airdvati at the town of Kunala, where the water is so shallow that while the one foot is in the water the other can be lifted up above it, permission is given to cross it.

4. Any particular member can only partake of refreshment when permitted by the. Abbot, or head of the community. The sick should first be fed, and the rest should then eat, giving to others, as well as partaking themselves.

5. During this lenten period, male and female ascetics in health should by no means partake of


the following articles rice and milk, curds, fresh butter, melted butter, oil, sugar, honey, spirits,

and flesh*.

6. Certain Bages having asked for direction in the matter, it was laid down as a rule, thai in feeding a Bick man, you are only to take what food he may Dot require, if you have the Supe rior'a permission.

7. It was also ruled, that though lawful to

of a householder what you Bee in his house for a sick person, you arc not to ask what you do not see. And when the reason of this was asked, the reply given was. that it' the householder he ;i man of --feat devotedness, he may he induced to go and buy what you want, or if not able to do this, even to steal it.

8. It is permitted those who eat only once a dav to go out to collect alms only once a daw This, however, does not forbid them to go out again for a teacher, ;i superior, a sick person, or a novice under age. The following rules are also to In observed. The person who fasts one day and on the preceding and succeeding partakes only of one

 * I' at tlic.M' two lasl Bhould at other

lie permitted than imw prohibited, and shews that in those ancient times .Iain priests, ae well as Brahmans, had different priii' . those th< atertain.


meal, should take whatever thing to eat or drink he may have received, and wiping clean the outside of the vessel, go home, and put it down on his mat, and partake of it. He who fasts two days at a time, may on the other days leave the convent twice to enter the abodes of householders in quest of provisions""". He who fasts three days at a time may thrice on the intervening days leave home to seek provisions, and he who fasts more than three days may go as often as he pleases.

9. He who eats one day is permitted to use any kind of water ; he who fasts wholly one day, and eats one meal on the preceding and succeed- ing is permitted only to use three kinds of water, that in which a man's hands have been washed, in which flour has been washed, or in which rice has been washed. He who fasts two days at a time must drink only of the three following kinds of water, that in which oil seed, rice, or barley, has been washed. He who abstains three days from all food must also drink only of three kinds of water, viz., that in which grain has been boiled, water skimmed from butter-milk, and hot water. And he who abstains more days, must drink only hot water ; cold water is prohibited. At the same time the

 * The general rule in all these cases is, that the provisions are cooked, ready for eating, and that the ascetic asks nothing, but takes what is given.


i must be strained : unstrained water is en- tirely prohibited It is to be used according to measure also, and taken in limited quantities, even although thirst is not thereby quenched.

10. The ascetic may receive from householders to tin' extent of four solid and five Liquid arti- cles of diet, or five solid and tour liquid, and among these as much salt as will season his provi- sions. But lif Is only to take for thai day's con- sumption, he is not to go out in Bearch <>t' provi- sions a second time.

11. Ascetics during the lenten season are not permitted to enter a house till they have pa : sewn from that of their usual abode. Opinions

vary as to whether cottages and such like are to

he reckoned among the seven or not.

12. Ascetics who receive cooked food in the hand, are prohibits d from going out in quest of alms while it rains, whether the rain ho heavy or light. An ascetic who has received food, and consumed a part of it abroad, is not permitted to continue his mod if it begins to rain, hut lie must cover up

with his one hand the food he holds in the other.

and retire to a shed or cave* or the root of a tree,

 * The original here is Lena; the Sans, is ^RPI :i1 "' JMI^JT^J 3 the name still given to the eaves in which Buddhist and other sacred n re found. Perhaps thi

translation here won ■ '■ ■ Hermit


where there is no dropping or drizzling of rain, and there finish his meal.

13. An ascetic who receives cooked food in a vessel must not go out in heavy rain'", but if it rains lightly he may take a cloak and go. If after departure it begins to thunder and lighten, or rain heavily, he should take refuge in a house or con- vent, or at the root of a tree. He is to take only a share of the cooked victuals removed from the fire before his entrance. If the pulse alone were removed, he is to take only of that. If the rice alone he is to take a share only of the rice ; he is prohibited from taking anything that is in a vessel removed from the fire after his entrance. If overtaken in a storm, after receiving a supply of provisions, he may take shelter as aforesaid, but he is not there to eat his meal, only if it is getting late may he eat it, and then clean his vessel, and return home, for he is absolutely prohibited from remaining abroad during the night. Again in re- tiring for shelter during a storm, one male and one female may not stay in the same place, nor two males and one female, nor two males and two females, nor less than five be together. Nor must a male ascetic who has gone into a house to pro-

 * Heavy is what will penetrate through a cloak, a country blanket, or kambali.

 RULES FOB VA'I'ls. 109

curt' a meal Btay there, it' there is l>ut our female in the house, or in any of the above-mentioned ; only when there are five persons together may he remain ; b\x\ these may be either house- holders or ascetics. It' the place where he stands is open to the street, and to public inspection, he


14. AjBcetica are oot to dine or take any article

nf food without first obtaining leave of the su- perior. The reason is that he knows their consti- tution, and what they require best They are to address him respectfully, saying, " We wish to dine it' it be your pleasure, otherwise we will abstain tron i doing so."

15. No one is to dine while the body is be- dewed with water. Water is apt to lodge in the lines of the hands, about the points of the nails, the eyebrows, and the upper and lower lips; the body to he perfectly dried before partaking of a


16. The imperfectly enlightened ascetic* must

he on his guard, and carefully look that he do not come in contact with any of the eight small things

small animals, small flowers of mosses and

 * Chhadmastha, he who lias not jei arrived at perfect knowledge; t<> the omniscient Bage Mich attention is quite unnecessary- II-' know- withonl being on the watch.


grasses, small weeds, small vegetables, small blossoms of shrubs and trees, small eggs, small places, small liquid productions.

Small animals are caterpillars, and the larvae of animals of blue, black, red, yellow, and white colours. Small flowers and vegetables and blossoms are those respectively of all the five original colours as above. Small eggs are those of the bug and flea kind, the spider kind, the ant kind, the wasp kind, and the lizard kind. Small places are lairs, dens, ant-holes, white ant-hills, and bee-hives. Small liquid productions are dew, hoar-frost, fogs, hail, flakes of snow*. Of all these the imperfectly- enlightened sage must constantly be on his guard.

17. The ascetics are prohibited from going out to collect alms, without first asking the abbot, teacher, established sage, the head of their class, or the person under whose charge they may be. They are thus to address him — " If it be your pleasure we wish to go abroad and obtain articles for eating and drinking, but if you disapprove we will remain at home." The reason of this is, that the superior

 * The original is, ^^rfTJT and the Sanskrit paraphrase is

Wftf^rre^TClf^^n" I am not sure I have hit the exact idea.


best knows the state of the place, the constitutions of the persons, and what other matters require attention After he lias collected his dinner he is also i" ask Leave before he partake of it. in like manner he is bo ask permission before taking medicine. Be should also ask before performing any religious or entering on any coure

X<»r especially is the ascetic who keeps the Lenten rest permitted without leave of the superior to enter on the performance of the Sauleshana rite, in which, while a lis. .rind in medi- tation, and neither eating nor drinking, he comes • • last stage of his earthly pilgrimage, like a tree dropping its loaves in the proper season, wholly unconscious of the fact. It is also prohi- bited without such leave, to go out for sweetmeats and digi or to read the sirred books, or to

watch during the night for the performance of religious duties.

18. It is not permitted any one, whether sin or in company with another, to go out to clothes, a vessel, a blanket, shoo, or any article of

clothing, to protect him from the sun or weather, without first obtaining leave to do so, nor ; out, whether to ask alms of householders, oi for

btion, or to \ . temples of the si

or for the necessities of nature, or for meditation. Ajb th uperior alone knows the prop. a for

all thing '<at first respecl fully address


him, and having obtained his leave, then go abroad.

19. It is prohibited to any male or female ascetic to be without a couch to sleep on. If they have no bed to sleep on, or if it be too high or too low, if not rightly put together, if not of proper dimensions, if heavy and difficult to move, if not frequently wiped and kept clean, it will be difficult to keep from killing small insects, and so violating the duties of humanity. On the contrary, if pos- sessed of the opposite qualities, it will be easy to perform the duties of humanity.

20. Ascetics are ordered to clean and prepare three different places at a distance from their usual abode, for the three natural excretions. This is not needed in the hot and cold season, but it is required in the rainy season, on account of the multitude of insects, seeds, flowers, &c, which are there produced.

21. Ascetics are ordered to restrain emitting phlegm, or voiding either of the other two natural excretions""", (except in the above-mentioned places).

 * These, of course, are Tp^f and JT^ mMagadhi, ^J^"p£

and THJcTW an( l delicately expressed in Gujaratlri by

 ^^fcf and ^Rtf?*

 RULES FOB V \ lis. 1 13

22. It is prohibited to an ascetic to wear hair Longer than that which covers a cow. The night of the commencement of the fast must nol pass before the ascetic has shaved his head. It should afterwards be .-haven monthly, otherwise cut with scissors every fortnight, and shaved at the end of six months, or at any rate, at the end of a year.

-A. It is prohibited during the last to use any angry or provoking language. Be or she who 50 is not to be allowed to remain in the community.

24. It' <>n account of words that have passed between parties, a quarrel arise, mutual forgiv< oess is to be asked and granted, the elder disciple is to ask forgiveness of the younger, and the younger of the eider. Self- rest mint is also to be exercised by each individually, and the exercise pressed upon others. Those who practise self-control are to be

venerated, those who do not are not to be vene- rated. Self-control is the chief of all religious

25. Three different cleanings are enjoined of

the morning picking up of impurities, the midday sweeping, and the evening washirj

26. Ascetics when going in quest of provisi >ns

 * This transl ccording to the letter, [t may perhaps

only mean thai there are t" be three daily cleanings of rtie three kinds.


are enjoined to ask the superior whether they are to go to a distance or remain near. The reason of this being-, that certain sages on account of the practice of austerities are not fit to go far, and therefore the superior is the proper person to determine who shall remain near and who go to a distance. A sage is not permitted, after wander- ing about four or five leagues, to stay at the place at which he has arrived, but must return before night. If unable to do so he must return a cer- tain part of the way and lodge there.

27. Those who observe the aforesaid yearly Institute of the Sages, according to the rules laid down for this Institute, with a sincere purpose fol- lowing the established ritual, performing the wor- ship directed, and obeying the commands given, will some of them, those especially who have already abandoned the world, become perfect in knowledge, and after the termination of their present lives obtain liberation, and freedom from all pain. Others will obtain the same, after two or three transmigrations, and none will exceed the seventh or eighth.

This Institute was ordained by the adorable ascetic Mahavira at Rajgriha, in the sacred garden (Chaitya) of Gimasila, while surrounded by multi- tudes of male and female ascetics and lay disci- ples, as well as gods and goddesses.

 N A\ \ TATV V. 110




 Tin: following ;iiv t lie Nine Principles of Things : (1) Animation; (2) Inanimate Matter; (3) Meril ; (4) Demerit; (5) Appetite and Passion, and other provocatives to sin ; (6) Self-Denial, and other helps to virtue; (7) Means to free the Mind from worldly attachments; (8) Worldly Attachments; (9) Final Deliverance*.

Of the first and second of these there are four- varieties; of the third, forty-two; of the

 • The original is as foUoTO:~^ft3TS^itaT TO TRTS^R

  • T?T"RT f^"55fTmT ^<ft *T**TT*J The Sanskrit equi- valents are offa ^^ TO Tjm ^F5R V^T f^^TT


fourth, eighty-two ; of the fifth, forty-two ; of the sixth, fifty-seven ; of the seventh, twelve ; of the eighth, four ; and of the ninth, nine.

I. Animated beings may be considered under one, two, three, four, five, or six aspects ; simply as possessed of life ; as vegetables and animals ; as male, female, and of neither sex ; as men, brutes, demons, and gods ; as possessed of one, two, three, four, or five senses ; and as having a body of earth, water, fire, wind, wood, or flesh.

The fourteen kinds of animate beings are as follows : First, objects with one sense ; which are of two kinds, those that are invisible or seen with difficulty, and those that are easily seen, [these are fire, air, earth, and vegetables]. Secondly, beings with five senses ; some of which have a mind, [as men, gods, demons, fowls, and all animals and fishes that are produced, in the Jain estimation, from parents], and others have no mind, [as beings in the embryo state, and those generated, as the Jains think, by equivocal generation, from phlegm, slime, &c, as some kinds of fishes and serpents]. There are then beings possessed of two senses, (viz., touch and taste, as shell-fish), and others hav- ing three, (viz., touch, taste and smell, as ants and fleas) ; and still a third class, with four senses, (wanting only hearing, as flies, bees and scorpions). Each of these seven classes of animals may be complete in all their powers or parts, or ineom-

 \ W A IAT\ \. 117

plete, forming the fourteen distinctions among animated beings .

The mosi exalted properties of animated beings are, knowledge, perception, initiation into a reli- gious life, the practice of self-denial, the posses- sion of power, and the employment "I" humus to obtain an end.

The following things sustain life : food, a body, tin.' senses, the power of breathing, the power of Bpeech, and mental power. The first four belong to creatures that have but one sense, the first five to creatures having two, three, and four senses, or five without a mind, — and all the six to the crea- tures have a mind. There arc ten vital airs concerned in the sustaining of life, one for each of the five senses, one that supports the breathing, one on which the* term of life depends, and the invigorating airs, one for the mind, a second for the Bpeech, and a third for the hodily frame j. Beings with one, two, three, and four Benses; have the first four, six, Beven, and eight of these

 * The original word translated, witli a mind, is *rf^ Sanskril J\^'. *T?r^n.' The word for comi lete is q 331T rTT


Sanskrit u^T^T* The additions within brackets are all from •1 future, except one or two from, oral information.


respectively. Those with five senses, and without a mind, have only nine vital airs*.

The union of these with a body constitutes the state of life, and their disjunction the state of death. Fire, air, earth, and water, are called elementst. Trees and flowers of all kinds are called existentsj. Beings with less than five senses are called respirers§, and the four classes of beings with five senses, (viz., gods, men, brutes, and demons), are called properly animated beings [|.

II. The fourteen distinctions of things without life are : solids, fluids, and airsT, each of which has three aspects. The whole, a territory, and a district""". Add to these time, and the four dis- tinctions of a bodytt, the whole body, a region, a member, and an atom, and the number is com- pleted. Inanimate objects are then divisible into four classes, solids, fluids, bodies, and air. Fluids

 * tttwt: t *tTT s. ^t.

t *£srsiT s. vgm § ^twt s. ttt^t:


  • RTf%3rpq: ^wf^i^rre?: ^^mfi^T^:

    • ^hiR[^n^T Sans. ^^^3T3?^3X: tt TO^T S. T7^Tf%3TP3:

 N \\ \ T.\ I ' \ L19

form a medium in which motion can be performed, solids are stable, air forma the atmosphere, and body is matter formed for the habitation of a liv- ing principle, and has the lour divisions named above.

The divisions of time are, samaya, avali, mu- hiirtta, days, demi-lunations, months, years, ages (palyas), oceans (sagara), atsarpini, and avasar- pani [The first is an infinitesimal part of time], and there are sixteen millions, seven hundred and Beventy-seven thousand, two hundred and sixteen (16,777,216) avali in a muhurtta (forty-eight minutes). The two last are the Jain eras, measur- ing the time between the creation and destruction of the world, as elsewhere explained].

1 1 1. The rewards of merit, and themselves pro- ductive of merit, are, birth in a good family, in one of the two conditions of manhood, [manhood directly, or indirectly by being removed to a human womb in the embryo state, as narrated of Mahavfra], the two conditions of godhead [as . the possession of the five senses, and of one of the five bodies. These are, a natural body, (udarika) ; a supernatural assumed tempo- rarily, (vaikriya) ; one a cubit Long, to go to Ma- havidehi, a particular terrestrial continent, to obtain of the Tirthankaras there a solution of doubts, (aharika) ; a Luminous body (tejasvi) like of tli" gods : and any body obtained as the


fruit of merit, (karmika) ; to possess also the bones like adamant, and the perfect form of a Tirthan- kare, a good colour, smell, taste, touch, and the proper proportion of heaviness, and lightness, in- ofTensiveness, moderate breathing, a brilliant coun- tenance, elegant motion, and members all properly balanced, the state of a god, that of a man, that of the highest classes of animals, and that of a Tir- thankar. These, in addition to the following ten modes of action, form the forty-two meritorious states. The modes of action are, voluntary motion, right use of the senses, of all the other organs, a separate body for the soul to act on, firmness in action, pleasantness in deportment, elegant ges- ture, speaking with a sweet voice, in a persuasive manner, and so as to elicit praise.

IV. The effects and causes of sin are the follow- ing : — The ten divisions of want of knowledge, [first of things mental, then of words, then a want of perfect knowledge of sensible objects, the want of knowledge of what is doing in all the forty-five divisions of the world, then in the fifteen the abode of man, next, want of omniscience ; besides there is incapacity of giving, inability to obtain the ob- ject of desire, incapacity of securing delight, and inability to enjoy]. There are also nine natural infirmities, [imperfection of sight and sleep ; of the former four, and of the latter five, viz., total want of sight, incapability of seeing what is not before

 \ \\ A TATVA. I 2 1

the eyes, incapability of Boeing .-ill thai is dune on earth, incapability of Beeing all things; and Bleep, deep Bleep, Bleep in which one can Bit or Btand, Bleep in which a person can walk about, mesmeric Bleep, in which a booth might be pulled out or a Limb cm off without the patient's knowledge, and in which he can exert supernatural strength in accomplishing plans thought of during the day*].

Next there is. birth in a low family, any act that gives pain, false worship, the state of any of the ten kinds of living beings destitute of motion, any <>\' the thre< in bell, descending nat ur

ally there, being drawn away to it, ami living iii it] ; being under the influence of any of the twenty- five passions, [sixteen proper, as. anger, pride, love, ccvetousness, each of four kinds; and things con- nected with passion, as laughter, &c., six things, and the three sexual Btates of animals]; the four

es "t" living beings with one, two, three, and Pour senses; bad gait ; natural defects, [as, a buck- tooth, &c.]; also disagreeable colour, smell, taste, or feel ; anyone of the five conditions of the bones or form of the body other than that above des- cribed, under the opposite head ; all these are con-

 * This is railed by the .lains A>\ .ipani Nldnt, : 1 1 * 1 1 ■ > 1 1 ■_■ 1 1 I

cannot learn tint they are acquainted with any process by which it is induced.


nected with the principle of sin. Besides, there are want of proper motion in any member of the body, extreme minuteness, improper develop- ment, excessive hairiness, want of firmness ; and the following acts, indelicate contact, (touching any part of the body below the navel), causing distress to any being, inharmonious sound, dis- obedience, disrespect.

V. Appetites and passions, and other incite- ments to sin. These are the five senses and the four passions, (anger, pride, love, covetousness] ; the five sinful acts, [[[Wikipedia:killing|killing]], stealing, lying, adul- tery, devotedness to the world) ; the three yogas, [applications of the mind, speech, and body, to worldly objects) ; besides the twenty following acts : walking carelessly, [and so endangering the life of insects], lending a weapon, wishing ill to any being, teazing any being or injuring them, beginning any work, [as ploughing], the reception of a gift, the exercise of cunning, accusing the Jain sacred books of falsehood, acting without any rule, seeing stage plays, touching things forbidden, [as horses, bulls, and women, which are prohibited to ascetics) ; hearing one's own praises proclaimed, bearing weapons, beating animals, purchasing ar- ticles to sell them at a profit, piercing any animal with a weapon, doing things with carelessness, dis- regard of the good opinion of gods and men, ordering others to do what you should do yourself,

 N \\ \ TA TVA. 1 23

mingling in a crowd of people, currying favour with others, cherishing malicious purposes, and travelling, [in which, from Liability bo tread on small insects, the danger of Binning is incurred.].

VI. Self-denial, religious restraint, and other helps t<> a course of virtuous action. These are, tin- five cares about externals, the five cares about internals : twenty kinds of patient endurance, and ten kinds of virtuous actions. Ofthefirsi earned, attention to the road on which you walk, [that there be no insects od it to sustain injury], atten- tion to what you -ay. and what you eat, care about what you receive, that you do do< put it down on the ground, and allow ants t<> mingle with it, &c], and care about excretions. < >f the .second named, or care about internals, there is one care to ex- clude improper and to introduce religious subjects of meditation, fare to cover your mouth when you Bpeak, lest BOme fly or animal enter it], and to avoid ;,U kind- of sin. The following things are to be patiently borne: hunger, thirst, cold, heat,

the bite of any animal, while you are engaged in

religious worship, dirty and ragged clothes, the solicitations of passion, the absence of female society, the inconveniences of travel, the appear- ance of ghosts, an uncomfortable couch, railing, murderous blows, begging, disappointment in ob- taining what we desire, disease, a straw pallet, dirt, honour, the praise of knowledge, the disgrace


of ignorance, and religious doubts. The ten acts are as follows : the milduess that restrains wrath, the humility which subdues pride, the simplicity which is opposed to cunning, the spirituality which is opposed to worldly-mindedness, fasting and auste- rities, self-restraint, speaking the truth, tender regard for the life of all creatures, abandonment of all worldly possessions, celibacy and chastity. These things contain the principles of the Jam religion.

VII. Raising the mind from worldly attach- ments. To effect this the following* nine reflec- tions are to be kept before the mind : that all things are unstable, that death and the ills of life cannot be prevented, that man is driven through a succession of states in different worlds, that the same life is frequently passing through births and deaths, that the body is but a receptacle for filth, that man is through the actions he is called on to perform exposed to innumerable temptations to sin, that these may be resisted, and that works of all kinds should be abstained from- In addition to these the following three reflections should be made : that man is by his form fitted for religious exercises, that to obtain such a body is difficult, and therefore, that he who has obtained it should give his whole attention to the subject of religion. These are the twelve spiritual reflections. Besides these there are the five sacraments. The first is,


introduction bo t In - Jain religion, t. e., a vow to abstain from .-ill injury, and to exercise compassion towards all living creatures; the second is, initia- tion into an ascetic life, by which, all former sins are obliterated ; next, the sacrament of the greater penance, [being eighteen months fasting and read ing for an ascetic who threatens to leave the com- munity]; and the lesser penance, [of shorter periods, for ebullitions of passion and slight faults] ; an<l lastly, there is tin- Sacrament of Renown, when the true disciple, breaking through all the entanglements of the world, attains to the state where there is immortality and freedom from decay. There are six kinds of external austerity : entire abstinence for a limited time, taking a mouthful less and loss every day ; the resolution t" fat only if the article, place, time, and disposi- tion, arc in accordance with a previously formed conception in the mind: the refusing all Bavoury articlesof die! ; afflicting the body, [as tearing 'out the hair]; restraining the senses; nol looking &i objects of temptation. There are also six internal austerities: repentance, humility, resolution to l'<-*>\ holy men, reading of holy books and instruct- ing others in tin- same, religious meditation, ami

ly, raising the mind above all worldly desires. Such are the restraints that prepare the mind for emancipation.

VIII. Worldly attachments. These are lour


kinds, and have reference to the nature, time, sen- sible qualities, and place of the objects which affect the mind. The first refers to their essence, the second to the time of their continuance, the third to their flavour, smell, &c, and the fourth to the places in which they are found. Restraints and attachments are of the following kinds : covering, [as the restraint of sight by a bandage over the eyes) ; foreign agency, [as that of a porter stop- ing one at a door] ; terror, [as the restraint from eating honey on the edge of a sharp sword] ; the fascination of affection ; confinement in the stocks ; the attraction of beautiful objects, and paintings*; considerations of rank, [like a potter examining the different grades of the vessels he lias made] ; and delays [as those experienced at the treasury when money is wanted]. So much for the subject of worldly attractions.

IX. Relative to the state of final emancipation there are six things stated : that there is really such a state, the size of the emancipated lives, and of the place where they live, their tangible quali- ties, the duration of their existence, the distance at which they are from one another, their parts,

 * The original here is f^TT simply, and the explanation is "after the manner of a painter;" but I am not sure I have hit the exact idea.

 \ \\ \ tatva. 1-7

their natures, their numbers. Although, liuwever, these things may he predicated of it. nevertheless, as emancipation La a simple term, bo it is expres- sive of a aimple object, and not like Bky-flower, which is a compound term embodying more than ciic idea. Of this thing emancipation, we are now to declare the means of attainment. The road to emancipation lies through particular states, viz., the possession of senses and a body, also the condition of possibility or impossibility, the pos- bi bsj 'ii of passions, and of knowledge and vision, through the sacraments, through minute obstacles, the paths of rectitude, the possession of a mind or the contrary, and abstinence or the contrary. By these, then, emancipation is only obtained in the state of manhood, [not in that of a good demon or brute], while in possession of five senses, while possessing a body capable of voluntary motion, in a condition of possibility, while possessing a mind, through the Bacrament of the highest asceticism, in that path of rectitude in which there is no re- trogression, through the possession of perfect knowledge and vision, and in the practice of abstinence. It is not obtainable through any other path. The space occupied by each of the perfect is boundless, and increases accordii s any one's desire. The term in which tiny remain in th is also infinite. Their parts arc Lnnu-

i'lc. There is qo returning again to a worldly


state, and no interruption to their bliss. They have perfect vision and knowledge, they have no dependence on works, but exercise themselves ac- cording to the highest philosophy. Such is the life of the Perfect.

Few neuters, [not more than ten at a time), and a small proportion of females, [not more than twenty at a time), obtain perfection ; the perfect consist chiefly of males, [of which one hundred and eight may be emancipated at once]. Such is the doctrine of emancipation, and the conclusion of the Tract, or the Nine Principles of Things. He who is acquainted with these nine principles, and lays hold of them by faith, is perfect in knowledge. He who is ignorant of them cannot be perfect in knowledge. The words and doctrine of all the Jain Lords is here, and nowhere else to be found ; therefore, he whose mind is instructed in these, possesses true and stable knowledge. He who has had this knowledge impressed on his mind for only an hour, is detained only by half the mental and bodily attraction that he was before.

In time there are infinite cycles, of which an infinite number have passed, and an infinite num- ber are to come. Among sages there are the fol- lowing distinctions : Jinas, and those not Jinas ; Tirthankaras, and those who are not ; Householders and Mendicants, and Regular Ascetics ; Men, Women, and Eunuchs ; those instructed by a

 S \\ A I'ATVA. L29

private individual, the Belf-taught, and those broughl up under regular teachers ; those who are emancipated singly, and those emancipated in a bodv.



 The relations and affinities of the ancient and modern languages of India is a subject which lias lately eng the attention of learned Europeans. It is one, however, attended with no common difficulties. The ancient grammarian, Vararuchi, mentions aot only a general Prakrit Language, tin- relation of which to the Sanskril he defines in BeveraJ books of aphorisms, bu1 distin- guishes it also from the Suraseni, Magadhi, and other dialects. His rules have bees commented on by

Colebrooke and Lassen, especially the latter; and the

reader who wants information on the general subjecl

is referred to those authorities. The following remarks

reference solely to the language in which the Kalpa Sutra, here translated, and the other ancienl

sacred Looks of the .Iain community, are written ; for

although in comments on the ancienl hooks, and in mod. rn works, the Jains, as in the Introduction to the Kalpa Sutra, employ the Sanskrit, or one of the ver-

K 2


nacular tongues, all their really ancient and standard works are written in the Magadhi. It is a curious fact, that the Ceylonese Buddhists term their sacred tongue, usually called Pali, also Magadhi ; though on comparing the Mahavanso, one of their sacred books, with the Jain writings, I find considerable dissimilarity between the two dialects ; the Pali approaching much nearer to the standard of the general Prakrit, and having few, if any, of the peculiarities of the Magadhi dialect, while the Jain works exhibit them by no means in a slight degree. The Mahavanso probably exhibits, pretty nearly, the court language of India three hundred years before our era, when Buddhism was first firmly established in Ceylon, while the language of the Kalpa Sutra was the court language of the Balabhi monarchs of Gujarath seven centuries later; for although the two works were probably composed about the same period, the language all the while in Ceylon being a dead language, and its use confined to the priesthood, it would remain unaffected by those changes to which in India, as a spoken tongue, it would be continually subjected. In reference to the meaning of the word Prakrit, it may be observed that, among the Marathi Brahmans, the term is often taken in its widest sense to signify the natural or vernacular language of any province in India. In a more restricted sense, it means any of the ancient dialects of the different provinces, and which, as most of their books used till lately to be written in it, obtains, in the south of India, the appellation Grantha. The Sanskrit is not at present


< vernacular tongue, l»m a language polished and refined, as it- name implies, for the purposes of litera- ture; yet it seems highly probable thai the ruder dialed from which the present Sanskril has b en formed was the spoken tongue of the tribe, who. under Bharat, as they themselves relate, settled in Upper India, and afterwards gave the name of their Boven ign to the whole country, which extends from Cape Comorin to the Himalaya Mountains. These Bharatans thru possessed, according to their own accounts, con- tained in the works called Purans, and other records of their traditions, at their first emerging from obscurity, but a small portion of India, while at that

time the country was peopled in every direction by tribes of a race entirely distinct, and in different stages of civilization, whom they at first denominated Daitya, Danava, and Rakahas, and still later Mlechhas; just as

till very lately, it' they have even now ceased to do SO,

the Chinese ased to call all foreigners devils, ami the 1 i ika men of every other race, barbarians.

Urn- of the most striking features in the institutions of those northern immigrants was tin- distinction of . which they cither brought along with them, or introduced Boon after their arrival in India. Vet at the first the military and priestly castes were one, and many instances can he pointed out in tin- Purans where tic- second bou of a military sovereign entered the

priesth 1, while his elder brother Bwayed the Bceptre.

Another Btriking characteristic of this tribe was, that it belonged to that grand central Asian family which


has acted by far the most prominent part on the political arena of the world, sending off colonies, which became the germs of mighty monarchies in Persia, Greece, Italy, and modern Europe, as well as in India ; and in all those different localities retaining the rudi- ments of a dialect which has formed the basis of most of those languages which contain the treasures of literature and science, as has been fully manifested by the learned labours of Schlegel, Kennedy, and Bopp. It is evident that on the spreading abroad of this northern family, and their mingling with the aborigines, a mixture of the language of the two people must have resulted. The same process, then, that took place in Spain, the north of Italy, France, and Britain, on the conquest of those countries by the Romans, took place, we rnust believe, in India, when the followers of Brah- manism, at different periods, took possession of its different kingdoms and principalities. The language of the aboriginal inhabitants of India, if we may judge from the Tamil, that of the people most to the south, and farthest removed from Brahmanical influence, and from the dialects spoken by the hill tribes, which have never embraced the Brahmanical customs and religion, and which dialects have all much in common with the Tamil, belonged to a family of languages entirely distinct from that of the northern invaders, and had a nearer resemblance to the Turkish and Siberian dialects than to any of the Indo-Germanic tongues.

It was not the policy of the Brahmans, any more than <>f the Romans, to dispense with the use of their



own language, the record of their religion, traditions, and laws, hut it required m> Blight modification before it could become the vernacular tongue of men whose organs <>l" Bpeech were utterly incapable <>f enunciating severaJ of its elements, and most of its combine 1 consonants. The old Sanskrit of the Veda, which we may suppose to have been the language of the follower) of Bharat, is a harsh language compared with the musical Tamil, dialects allied to which we must suppose the languages of the Indian aborigines to have ' en. Indeed it is admitted that the Telinga, Canareee, and other languages of the Peninsula, are closely allied to that tongue; but this is far from the whole truth ; for though the languages of northern and central India borrow most of their vocables from the Brahn anical Sanskrit, yet in their grammatical construc- tion, and the pronunciation of the letters, they more nearly resemble the Tamil. Thus, for example, the letters ■^ (ri) and ^ (sh) along with the Visarga, are unpro- Dounceable by the great body of the population in every part of India. Ami as to the combinations ^J (ksh)

"g (slit ) ?Ji (kt) ami a host of others, no Indian hut a

Brahman ever attempts to enunciate them. In regard to the inflexions of nouns in the vernacular Indian tongues, wo have first the letter *T (n) a verycnmmon characteristic mark of the genitive, appearing in the Tamil "^cf (ina) the f«T ("i) of the first declension in

Telinga, the "^J^ (ana) ami ~z*n (ina) of the first and

fourth declensions in Canarese, the ^TT (naj pi (nf)


c< (num) of the Gujarathi, and the "^^ (cheni) of the old Marathi. To find anything like a parallel to this we must pass the Sanskrit, and seek it in the Turkish S In regard to the dative, the letter 3J (k) is the prevailing characteristic in the vernacular languages of India ; thus in the Tamil we have ^ (ku), in the Cana-

rese ^ (kke) of the second declension, in the Telinga

^ (ku), in the Hindostani 3n" ^ko), and in the Bengali

^f (ke). How could there be such an analogy in respect of these the two most common and important of all the cases among languages whose vocables are so different, unless we ascribe it to the influence of an aboriginal Indian language, which obtained throughout the country, though doubtless with dialectic varieties, before the Brahmanical tongue had prevailed in nearly supplanting it everywhere, except in the Peninsula. On this, however, and on the allied subject of the affinity between the languages spoken by the moun- taineers and the Tamil, additional information will be found in the first volume of the " Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society."

The Prakrit and other dialects, then, mentioned by Vararuchi had then origin in the necessity which had arisen of adapting the Brahmanical speech to the organs of the Indian aborigines, and may either be considered as corruptions or refinements, according to the standard which is used to try the qualities of languages. Having for my own part first studied the Sanskrit, and admired the accuracy with which it


enables a writer to express all the varied Bhades of his ideas, and the niceties of its structure, 1 confess I fell disappointed in turning to the Prakrit ; bul after advancing a Little in the knowledge of the language, f feel bound to concede that, by its greater simplicity of construction, and superior facility of enunciation, the Prakrit may easily bear away the palm from its rival as a simple, yel polished and harmonious vehicle of human thought, admirably fitted to be the spoken tongue of a greal ami refined nation; and il the reader will look back to the "explanation of Trisala's dream," he will readily conceive that the language in which thoughts bo varied and beautiful can he conveyed with nid -race, musl he something more than a jargon. In the peculiar dialed of Prakrit termed Blagadhf, the first point mentioned by Yararuchi is the substitution of 11 (s) for ^ (s), and ^ (sh) (tot: I[) # In the com- mon dialect, on the contrary, H (s) and ^ (sh) become

  • y (s). Now it is a strong confirmation of this rule of tin- grammarian to find, that on the Ganges, whence we may suppose the model of the common Prakrit t<> have been taken, in all the different dialects of Hindi and 1 1 in dustani. the jf (s) is the only sibilant used, while in the

Marathi country, which anciently fell within the limits

of the kingdom ofMagadha, the if (s) is the favourite sibilant, being by the common people always substituted for ?J (s) before the palatine vowels ^ (i) and T3[ (e),

and the semi-vowel ^ST (y); thus, ftm (seva) becomes


imT (seva), and f*n? (sinha) is changed to ft[l> (siha). In the Gujarathi cursive character, although both these sibilants are pronounced, the ?J (s) is seldom written, "3J (s') being put in its place, and the proper pronunciation left to the skill of the reader.

In the Jain Magadhi manuscrijDts, which are written in a form of the Nagari, varying in several letters a good deal from the Pevanagari, the two letters in question seem used almost promiscuously at the pleasure of the scribe. In most of the Jain manuscripts in the

Library of the Bombay Society, ?J (s) alone is used. In the two manuscripts of the Kalpa Sutra, from which the translation was made, "3J (s) is liberally used, except in the terminations ^f (ssa) and ^T (su) ; but then the scribes seem, in the choice of one or other, to have acted quite at random, for at one time we have

^11! (vasaha), and then again 3"3Jt[ (vasaha) for 3^^f (vrishabha). The Yati who assisted me, maintained that the two letters should be pronounced in the same way, which, but for the authority of the grammarian, and the modern usage above referred to, I should have no solid reasons for refusing to grant. As to the proper pronunciation of the three sibilants, a Maharashtra

Brahman pronounces ?J (s) as the common liissing s ;

"3[ (s) he pronounces as a very soft sh, similar to these

two letters in our word sheep ; and ^ (sh) as a very harsh sh, in which the tongue is raised towards Ihe


palate, as in pronouncing the ~Z (tf) class. <>n the

whole. I am inclined to think that If (s) was originally

more frequently written, and always pronounced by the Jains; but as far as I have had an opportunity of examining their works, any attempt now at the

restoration of If (d) to its proper place would be perfectly hopeless.

The next mark of the MagadhJ mentioned by the

grammarian, is the conversion of ~5\ (j) t<» Tf (y), the reverse "I" which takes place in the common Prakrit. Both changes can be instanced in our honks ; ami as to the peculiar Magadhi form, we have examples of it in 77^ fraya) for "^ (raja), ami t\th (gaye) for -JToT:

(gaja);also in ^znr (vayara) for ^W (vajra). and ^ 1 «i |

(raya) tor ^\ m <^\ (raja); "^Tf^ (raf)inMarathi,and ^T"3\

(rail) in (nijarathi, are more modem forms of the same wurd.

In the Ma-adhi, the x| (eh) elass of letters keep their places, while in the common dialect they are elided.

This answers very well as a general rule for the dialect

of the Jains, hnt it has its exceptions, as "^fr^lV^T^

(ayariyanam) meaning '^fT'^T'^r^l! (acharyebhya), and probably also ^m^ (vayasf) he said; if. as I suppose, it is from the root ^"^ (vach). In reference to of (j)

it can only keep its place when not changi d to Jj (\).

The change t" ^J (v) instead of "^ .1 , i- v. ry common


in our manuscripts, even in other case's : thus we have TfJ^J (seya) for ^Jrf (seta) where ^J (y) is used for rf (t).

I have not seen the change of ^J (rj) to TSf (yy),

but the reverse, as for TramSFT (paryushana) we have

tJ^f^njTJTT (pajjausaua) according to the common

Prakrit. Again WqT (bharyya) becomes ^TTf^TT

(bhariya) instead of the common Prakrit 'JTTfT^T (bharia). From this word, by the application of the grammarian's rules, we shall get something nearer the Marathi cfT^t (bayi) or ^it; (bai).

The word 1[<^q^ (hridayasya) has not the peculiar

form with us, the grammarian mentions. Nor is ^ (r)

changed to tjf (1), except perhaps in the doubtful

instances of ^^f^"?? (veruliya) for ^<*"q" (vaidurya),

and vjHJ<fT (urala) for ^3T<^"n^ (udara).

I do not know how the change of ^J (ksh) to "^3f

(sk) which takes place in Magadhi, according to Vara- ruchi, is to be explained. In the Jain manuscripts

?§" (kli) is usually written ^3f (rak), like ^ (r) and 3T (k). Was this what the grammarian meant, and was it a mere form of writing, or is the peculiar sound intended

utterly lost in the modern vernacular tongue I ^ (chh)

is often substituted for ^J (ksh) as in the common dialect.


In passing, 1 may mention that ^ (v) seldom Or

Qevei becomes ^ (b).

In reference to one of the principal peculiarities of the Magadhi dialect, the substitution of tj (e)foi "3ft (o) in the nominative singular of words, which in

Sanskrit have ^I (ah) or ^ (am), in that case the

rule of the grammarian is constantly followed in the

Kaljia Sutra: thus we have f"*T^ (gihe) for Tr?

(griham), *nrr€tT (mahavire) for *nfT3tT« (" 1;l ' l;l -

vi'rah) ; ami even in feminines in ^T (a) and ^ (i) the

rule holds, as ffT^JfTTr (Tisalae) for f^niWT (Trisala),

•'•'id ^rrf^TT (mahanie) for sM^^jft (brahmanf) This characteristic alone is sufficient to vindicate the correctness of the title Magadhi, as applied to the language in which the Jain hooks are written: and

the want of it in the Pali, shows that it has no proper claim to this peculiar epithet.

The fifth case, which should end in <? (du) or T^j

(do) in the writings of the Jains, as far as I have observed, always terminates simply in "3? (ti) dropping

the ^" (d> according to a rule which is qo1 commonly applied to such combinations; thus we have "3r*jrTT"3? (abhantaraii) for the Sanskrit "JfwjrT'^cn (abhyan- taratah). In the modern Marathi this termination bei'oni ~3\*T (uri . There is a peculiarity also in the


seventh case, the T{ (m) and *J (s) of the Sanskrit changing places; thus we have e|f^P5" (kuchhamsi) and IT^Wf^r (samanamsi) while in Prakrit the termi- nation is f^T or "f|

The use of the 1[ (h) in the sixth case is unexampled, as far as I have observed, as well as % (hu) in the

nominative plural. The long ^3?T (a) of the vocative is constantly used ; and the Kalpa Sutra is in this point quite comformable to the rule laid down for the Magadhi by the grammarian ; thus we have always

^"^TWfoj^TT (Devanuppiii). The feminine, however, is

<^gfTTJTfnrtr (Devanuppie). The rule above mentioned holds universally in modern Marathi. The pronouns conform to the standard of the common dialect, with- out having any of the peculiarities mentioned by the grammarian, which probably, like some of the other things he notices, were only prevalent vulgarisms. I have not met the exceptional word f?5"g! (chhisht'a) which he mentions. The rule is the very opposite of what this word would imply ; thus we have Iff

(hat't'ha) for Tg (hrishta) and TTJ (tut't'ha) for ?Tg (tushta) as in common Prakrit.

Besides the substitution of TO" (n) for «T (n) common to all the dialects of Prakrit, Vararuchi notes the change of the other dentals to palatine letters, as a characteristic of the Magadhi. In accordance with


this rale we have f^R"? (nibu&e) for fa^fTl (nivrita)

and *JT¥ (Samvu'de) for WZri: (Samvrita) and ^^

(he'da) for 1?7T: hata). This also is one of the striking peculiarities of the modem Marat hi language, as com- pared with tin- other vernacular dialects <>f [ndia : thus we have VJ"S (ganth) for Tjfa (granthi) and ^TWt

(hani) for ^f«f (dhwani) and ^^ (dankha) for ^"3j;

(dansa)and ^TH (Hambha) for <£"H (dambha) and a hundred others, in the common vernacular dialects.

The peculiar preter-pasl participle in ^Tfrj (dafli) has not fallen under my observation. There are two forms of this participle in common use, one in f (t't'u)

as 3f? (kat't'u) and the other in T^TT (itta) as 3ff^-r1I (karitta) both meaning 3ff^T (kritva). The

nearest to ^Tf^T (dani ) is the form T<TTW (itaiiani)

which occurs not anfirequently as in the word mfirrTTW

(parfitanam) used for mfalTTT (pasitta) from the root

tjtt (pa&a) in the sense of f^T (drish'tva).

In the third person singular present indicative of the verb, the contracted form 3T^^ (karei) is always used, contrary to the Pali practice, which mostly keeps the ?f (t) of the Sanskrit in the termination, while the

Prakrit Bubstituti ■ :l\ ^" (d).


Enough, then, has been said to show that the Jain books are not written entirely in the peculiar Magadhi of Vararuchi. The language will correspond more nearly to his Ardhamagadhika, though not to that entirely either. It is a peculiar dialect, having a decidedly Magadhi leaning, but differing in several respects from all the specimens of Prakrit found in the Hindu dramatic works, from which the grammarian's rules seem originally to have been derived. Probably a closer and more critical study of Jain works in their relation to the Sanskrit, Prakrit, Pali, and other dialects, might bring to light other points of difference ; but these remarks, it is hoped, will give the reader a tolerably correct notion of the general character of the language of the original works from which the foregoing translations were made. I must observe, however, that there are differences in these works themselves, and that my remarks in this Appendix have almost sole reference to the language of the Kalpa Sutra, the other tract approaching much nearer to the common Prakrit, and the untranslated manuscripts in the Library having been only occasionally consulted.





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